New Research has uncovered a target for chronic Pain Medication

Pain medications
New drug target may change chronic pain medication, that may lead to better medicine for those suffering from pain within the future.
Chronic pain is “the commonest reason for long disability,” according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

In fact, a recent analysis from the NIH estimates that quite twenty five million individuals within the u. s. (or over 11 p.c of the country’s adult population) suffer chronic pain. this implies that they have experienced pain on a daily basis for the past three months.

While in some cases chronic pain could have been initially triggered by an incident like an injury or an infection, most of the time, the reason for chronic pain is unknown.

Because its causes remain mostly unknown, chronic pain cannot nevertheless be cured. However, medicine typically help, and researchers are hard at work trying to come up with more effective treatments.

Now, a new study – published in the journal PLOS Biology – has identified a potential novel therapeutic target for chronic pain, which could help researchers to develop an alternative medication to treat pain in the near future.

The team was led by Dr. Matthew Dalva, of the Department of Neuroscience at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, PA. He and his team have investigated a process called phosphorylation and its impact on how chronic pain occurs and what sensations it triggers.

Phosphorylation is a term that describes a common biological process whereby a protein changes in response to external stimuli.

Identifying a new pain receptor
Previous research has identified a pain receptor called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the fact that it plays a key role in pathologic pain.

However, this receptor is also important in memory and learning, so drugs that would target this receptor would also affect these functions.

But in the new study, Dr. Dalva and colleagues identified a second receptor that also plays a crucial role in pain. In their study, the scientists examined neurons in particular.

New form of CBT may help with chronic pain management
New form of CBT may help with chronic pain management
Could a form of cognitive behavioral therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy help with the management of chronic pain?
Specifically, by conducting a series of laboratory tests in cell cultures and in vivo, the team were ready to see that, in response to injury-induced pain, the protein ephrin B modifies outside of the brain cell. This phosphorylation outside of the cell permits the ephrin B receptor to connect to the NMDA receptor, moving it into the synapses.

This method alters the function of the NMDA receptor, that results in higher sensitivity to pain.

As the authors make a case for, pathologic pain differs from pain caused by an injury or inflammation because it’s a results of cellular disfunction.

Because pain happens at the cellular level, it doesn’t depart even after the initial cause has gone – as is that the case with chronic pain or the common migraine.

For a cell to perform properly, proteins should be within the right location. however what the new study shows is that in the case of chronic pain, the questionable method of phosphorylation “moves” the proteins far from the nerve cell, therefore triggering cell disfunction and pathologic pain.

Importantly, employing a mouse model, the scientists were additionally able to take a look at some chemicals that managed to block the unwanted synergy between the ephrin B receptor and also the NMDA receptor.

Interrupting this communication between the 2 receptors stopped the pain. And conversely, bringing the two receptors along led to an excessive sensitivity to pain.

The senior author of the study comments on the importance of the findings, saying, “Because the protein modification that initiates nerve sensitivity to pain occurs outside of the cell, it offers us a better target for drug development. this can be a promising advance within the field of pain management.”

Sympathomimetics Or Adrenergic agonist Drugs

Adrenergic agonist Drugs

Those drugs that stimulates the adrenergic receptors are known as adrenergic agonists or adrenergic drugs or sympathomimetic Drugs
There are three types of classification of these drugs
1)Classification Based On Direct Acting And Indirect Acting sympathomimetic or adrenergic agonist

A)Direct Acting
Salbutamol or albuterol
Isoproterenol or isoprenaline
Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)

B)Indirect acting drugs:

2)Classification based on chemical structure
On the basis of chemical structure sympathomimetic drugs or adrenergic agonist are divided into two groups:

A) Catecholamines
Those drugs which contains catechol ring in their chemical structure.Catechole ring or nucleus consist of (OH) groups at position three and four of benzene ring.Following are catecholamines drugs or agents
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)
Isoprenaline (isoproterenol)

B) Non-Catecholamine
Those sympathomimetics drugs which don’t contain catechol ring or nucleus in their chemical structure.Following are the agents in this group

3)Classification based on effects of drugs on receptor types

A)Both alpha and Beta agonist

B)Mainly Alpha Agonists
These are further subdivided into two types

Mainly alpha 1 agonists

Mainly alpha 2 agonist

C)Mainly Beta Agonists
They are further divided into the following types:
1)Mainly Beta 1 + Beta 2 agonists
Isoproterenol (isoprenaline)
2)Mainly Beta 1 agonists
3)Mainly Beta 2 agonists

D)Dopamine Agonists
Important Drugs

# (1)Salbutamol:
Salbutamol is a direct acting selective B2 agonist and is mainly used as a bronchodiator.
Clinical Uses:
A)Salbutamol is used for the treatment of asthma in the form of inhalational dosage form.when use by inhalation ,a smaller dose of drug is required to produce the maximum beneficial effects with minimum systemic adverse reactions as compare to systemic administration.Dose of 0.25-0.5 mg can be given by Slow Intravenous,Subcuteneous or intramuscular .Each metered dose inhalar delover 100micrograms of salbutamol by one compression of its piston.1-2 inhalation can be used after every four to six hoursduring an attack of bronchial asthma.

B)Salbutamol can also be used in patient suffering from emphysema and chronic bronhitis.

It can be give Orally,Intramuscularly,intraveneously and by inhalation.Best absorb from GiT and it is metabolised mainly in liver by monoamine oxidase enzyme.Cause bronchodilation in few minutes and last for 3-4 hours when given by inhalational route.When given by subcutaneous route its effects occur in about five minutes and persist for about 4 hours.When given orally ,bronchodilation occurs after an hour and last for 5-6 hours.
# (2)Isoproterenol (Isoprenaline)
It is a direct acting synthetic agent which stimulate both B1 and B2 Receptors bit has no effect on alpha Receptors.

Clinical Uses:
(1)Bronchial Ashtma
Isprenaline is used through inhalational route or in the form of nebuliser.
(2)Heart Block & Cardiac Arrest:
Isoprenaline can be used by parenteral injection

Adverse Reactions:
Headache,Tachycardia,Cardiac Arrhythmias,and Flushing of skin can be occur.

# (3)Adrenaline Or Epinephrine
Its a direct acting Endogenous catecholamine and is administered by Intramiscular and subcuteneous and sometime rarely by INtraveneous Route.Epinephrine is mostly metabolised in the body and metabolites are excreted in urine.Adrenaline is metabolised in the body by two enzymes ,monoamine oxidase (MAO) And Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT).

Following are some of the very important Uses of adrenaline or norepinephrine.

Bronchial asthma:
Epinephrine is useful in bronchial asthma because it causes dilation of bronchioles by stimulation of beta2 receptors on their smooth can be given in a dose of 0.3-0.5mg by subcutaneous children 0.01mg/kg can be given .it can be repeated after every 15-20minutes .
Anaphylactic shock
Anaphylactic shock is a serious condition which occurs due to due to introduction of foreign substances or drugs in a person,who is allergic to these agents.these agents acting as antigens cause the formation of antibodies which become attached to the surface of mast cells and basophils.Re-Exposure of a person to antigens leads to interaction of antibodies with antigen on the surface of mast cell and basophils.Re.exposure of a person to antigens leads to interaction of antibodies with antigens on the surface of mast cell and basophils leading to their rupture and release of histamine and other chemicals.
These chemical agents will cause dilation of blood vessels in the body which will cause severe falls in blood pressure and ultimately less blood supply to tissues.Also Histamine and other chemicals thus released from mast cells and basophils will cause bronchoconstriction ,causing difficulty in breathing.Epinephrine is a drug of choice in anaphylactic shock .it reverse the vasodilation by causing stimulation of alpha receptors on the smooth muscles of blood this way it increase the blood pressure and restores it to normal causes bronchodilation by stimulation of Beta2 receptors on the smooth muscle of bronchioles.Thus breathing become easy.Adrenaline or epinephrine can be given in a dose of 0.3-0.5mg By intramuscular injection.It can be repeated after every 15-20 minutes if required.

Urticaria and angioedema
Urtecaria are multiple small swelling of the skin they are allergic in nature and are associated with pruritis.Angioedema is also allergic in nature and it is manifested in the form of swelling of face ,lips ,eyelids,tongue and glottis.Swelling of glottis can be life threatening.Both Urticaria and angioedma can be treated with adrenaline ,which reduces the swelling by causin vasoconstriction.

Cardiac arrest
In cardiac arrest the heart stop beating .it is best treated with electric ,cardioversion but if it is not available then 0.5mg of adrenaline or epinephrine can be injected directly into the heart which can be repeated every five minutes if required.

Adverse Effects of Epinephrine or adrenaline
Following are some Adverse events which occur when we used epinephrine ,
Cardiac arrhythmias
Nervousness,Restlessness,headache,tremor,and anxiety etc
Subarachoid and cereberal haemorrhage.

# Contraindications

It may caused subarachoid and cerebral haemorrhage due to increase in blood pressure.

Cardiac arrhythmias
Epinephrine or adrenaline can make the arrhythmias more severe and in severe cases ventricular fibrillation can occur.

It can prescipitate various types of cardiac arrhythmias in these patients.

Ischemic Heart disease
Epinephrine or adrenaline can precipitate angina pectoris or Myocardial infarction (MI)in patient with ishemic heart disease.there fore it is avoided in patient with ischemic heart disease and in old people.

# 4)Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline
It is an important endogenous stimulates alpha1, alpha 2 and Beta 1 adrenoceptors but has no significant effect on beta2 adrenoceptors.

It is sometimes used for the treatment of hypotension by intravenous infusion.

# 5) Dopamine
It is an endogenous catecholamine with important neurotransmitter activity.

Clinical uses:
In cardiogenic and septicemic shock dopamine increase the blood flow to the kidney and other vital organs by causing dilation of their these patients it is usually given in doses of 2-5microgram/kg/minute by intravenous infusion.Dopamine is not effective orally as it is destroyed during absorption from GIT.

Adverse effects:
Cardiac arrhythmias,Palpitations,Tachucardia,headache,Hypertension,Nausea and vomiting.

# 6) Dobutamine :
It is a synthetic catecholamine which mainly stimulates the beta1 adrenoceptor of heart,causing increase in the heart rate and force of its contraction,leading to increase in the cardiac output.

Clinical Uses:
A)Cardiogenic Shock
It is the drug of choice in the treatment of shock due to heart diseases,such as shock due to acute myocardial is given in a dose of 2.5-15microgram/kg/minute by IV infusion.

B)Acute Congestive Cardiac failure
Here it increase the cardiac output and improve the blood supply to the can be given at dose of 2.5-15microgram/kg/minute by IV infusion.

Adverse Reactions
Cardiac arrhythmias,Tachycardia,Palpitation,and nausea and vomiting .

# 7) Ibupamine
It releases dopamine in the body and is use orally .its clinical use not known.

# 8) Fenoldopam
It is a D1 agonist that causes dilation of some blood vessels causing fall in blood pressure .it is used by IV infusion for severe hypertension.



Aspirin Is The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has antipyretic And anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis.
Aspirin is The Most commonly Used medicine that has a number of uses, reducing the risk of serious problems such as from heart attacks , and strokes To relieving pain .
It comes in many Dosage forms, including pills, tablets that are dissolved in water, powders and oral gels.
Some types can be bought over the counter from pharmacies, while others are only available on prescription.

Uses for aspirin

At high doses usually 300mg – aspirin can relieve pain, reduce a high temperature (fever) and reduce swelling.
It’s often used for short-term relief from:
• Colds and flu
• Period pains
• Headaches and migraines
• Toothache
• General aches and pains
• In the treatment of myocardial infarction
• Many other inflammatory joint conditions (in higher doses)
• For the prevention of stroke (in lower doses)
• In the treatment of coronary artery disease
• To inhibit platelet aggregations (blood clot formations) to reduce risk of transient ischemic attacks and unstable angina (in lower doses)
• In the treatment of pericarditis
Note: Aspirin Is Contraindicated In Children Because Of the risk of developing Reye’s Syndrome

Side Effects:

The most common side effects of aspirin are:
• Nausea
• Irritation of the stomach or gut
• Indigestion
The following side effects are possible, but less common:
• Vomiting
• Bruising
• Asthma symptoms may worsen
• Stomach bleeding
• Inflammation of the stomach


Aspirin Is Not Recommended For
• People with a known allergy to aspirin
• People who are allergic to any NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen
• People who have a peptic ulcer
• Patients with hemophilia or any other bleeding disorder
• Children under 16 years of age
The following people should be cautious about taking aspirin, and should only do so if the doctor agrees:
• Patients with liver problems
• Patients with uncontrolled hypertension
• Patients with asthma
• Patients with kidney problems
• People who have had a previous peptic ulcer


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Acupuncture is The Traditional Chinese treatment In Which Fine And Sterile needles are inserted at certain sites in the body for preventative or therapeutic purposes .

In Chinese medicine, illness is thought to be caused by an energy imbalance in the body. Acupuncture tries to correct this.The number of needles varies but may be only two or three. The practitioner will assess each patient’s case and treatment will be tailored to the individual; so it is impossible to give more than this general idea of what your particular treatment might involve. This ancient system of Treatment has developed over 2,500 years and today is widely used and accepted all over the world.

Uses of acupuncture

Acupuncture is considered suitable for all ages including babies, children and the elderly. It can be very effective on its own and is also often integrated with conventional medical treatment.

Acupuncture practitioners – typically referred to as acupuncturists – use acupuncture to treat a large range of health conditions. However, the utilization of acupuncture is not supported rigorous scientific evidence.

According To NHS Following Conditions Can be Treated With The Help Of Acupuncture:


Chronic tension-type headaches

Acupuncture is also usually used to treat alternative musculoskeletal conditions (of the bones and muscles) and pain conditions, including:

Dental pain

Chronic pain, like neck pain

Joint pain

However, in several conditions wherever acupuncture is employed, there is less sensible quality proof to draw any clear conclusions over its effectiveness compared with alternative treatments.

Also Used For Allergies Like Hay Fever And Eczema

Sleep Problem (Insomnia)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome



Don’t rely on acupuncture for treatment of chronic or serious malady unless you see a doctor first. Acupuncture might not be the sole way to improve your condition. Your health care supplier could advocate acupuncture treatment together with alternative treatment strategies like physiotherapy or medication. Sure enough conditions, like cancer, acupuncture should solely be performed in combination with alternative treatment

How To Treat Psoriasis ?

How To treat Psoriasis


Psoriasis Is a recurring autoimmune Skin disorder characterized by red rash with silvery, white scales And thick, patches.It Is A The most common type is called plaque psoriasis.Psoriasis Can Effect Your Whole Body, but it shows up most often on your scalp, knees, elbows, and lower back.
A wide range of treatments are out there for psoriasis, however identifying that treatment is best are often difficult. discuss with your doctor if you are feeling a treatment is not working or you have uncomfortable side effects.
Treatments comprise three categories:
Topical – creams and ointments that are applied to your skin
Photo therapy – your skin is exposed to certain types of ultraviolet
Systemic – oral and injected medications that work throughout the complete body
Natural Home Remedies
Often, differing types of treatment are employed in combination.
Your treatment for psoriasis may have to be reviewed frequently. you may need to create a care plan (an agreement between you and your health professional) as this may assist you manage your regular health.

Topical treatments

Used alone, creams and ointments that you just apply to your skin will effectively treat mild to moderate psoriasis. once the sickness is more severe, creams are likely to be combined with oral medications or light therapy. Topical psoriasis treatments include:

Topical corticosteroids. These medication are the foremost frequently prescribed medications for treating mild to moderate skin condition. They cut back inflammation and relieve itching and will be used with different treatments.

Mild corticosteroid ointments are typically suggested for sensitive areas, like your face or skin folds, and for treating widespread patches of broken skin.

Your doctor might prescribe stronger corticosteroid ointment for smaller, less sensitive or tougher-to-treat areas.

Long-term use or overuse of robust corticosteroids will cause thinning of the skin. Topical corticosteroids might stop working over time. it’s always best to use topical corticosteroids as a short treatment throughout flares.

Vitamin D analogues. These artificial types of vitamin d slow skin cell growth. Calcipotriene (Dovonex) may be a prescription cream or solution containing a vitamin D analogue that treats mild to moderate skin condition along side different treatments. Calcipotriene would possibly irritate your skin. Calcitriol (Vectical) is expensive however could also be equally effective and probably less irritating than calcipotriene.
Anthralin. This medication helps slow skin cell growth. Anthralin (Dritho-Scalp) may take away scales and make skin smoother. however anthralin will irritate skin, and it stains almost anything it touches. it’s always applied for a brief time and then washed off.
Topical retinoids. These are vitamin A derivatives that will decrease inflammation. the foremost common side effect is skin irritation. These medications may increase sensitivity to daylight, thus while using the medication apply sun blocker before going outdoors.

The risk of birth defects is much lower for topical retinoids than for oral retinoids. however tazarotene (Tazorac, Avage) is not suggested once you are pregnant or breast-feeding or if you plan to become pregnant.

Calcineurin inhibitors. Calcineurin inhibitors — tacrolimus (Prograf) and pimecrolimus (Elidel) — cut back inflammation and plaque buildup.

Calcineurin inhibitors are not suggested for long-run or continuous use because of a possible exaggerated risk of skin cancer and malignant neoplastic disease. they will be particularly useful in areas of thin skin, like round the eyes, wherever steroid creams or retinoids are too irritating or might cause harmful effects.

Salicylic acid. on the market over-the-counter (nonprescription) and by prescription, salicylic acid promotes biological process of dead skin cells and reduces scaling. typically it’s combined with alternative medications, like topical corticosteroids or tar, to extend its effectiveness. salicylic acid is out there in medicated shampoos and scalp solutions to treat scalp skin condition.
Coal tar. Derived from coal, tar reduces scaling, itchiness and inflammation. tar will irritate the skin. it is also messy, stains vesture and bedding, and incorporates a robust odor.

Coal tar is available in over-the-counter shampoos, creams and oils. it is also on the market in higher concentrations by prescription. This treatment is not suggested for ladies who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Moisturizers. Moisturizing creams alone will not heal psoriasis, however they will cut back itching, scaling and dryness. Moisturizers in an ointment base are typically simpler than are lighter creams and lotions. Apply instantly when a shower or shower to lock in moisture.


Phototherapy uses natural and artificial light to treat skin disease. Artificial light therapy is given in hospitals and a few specialist centres, typically under the care of a dermatologist. These treatments are not the same as employing a sunbed.
UVB phototherapy
Ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy uses a wavelength of sunshine that’s invisible to human eyes. the light slows down the production of skin cells and is an efficient treatment for a few types of psoriasis that haven’t responded to topical treatments. every session only takes some minutes, however you will ought to attend hospital two or thrice every week for six to eight weeks.
Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA)
For this treatment, you will initial be given a pill containing compounds known as psoralens, or psoralen is also applied on to the skin. This makes your skin additional sensitive to lightweight. Your skin is then exposed to a wavelength of light known as ultraviolet A (UVA). This light penetrates your skin more deeply than ultraviolet B light.
This treatment is also used if you’ve got severe psoriasis that hasn’t responded to different treatment. side effects of the treatment include nausea, headaches, burning and itching. you will need to wear special glasses for 24 hours once taking the pill to stop the development of cataracts. long-run use of this treatment is not encouraged, because it will increase your risk of developing skin cancer.
Combination light therapy
Combining phototherapy with different treatments typically will increase its effectiveness. Some doctors use UVB phototherapy together with tar, because the tar makes the skin additional receptive to light. Combining UVB phototherapy with dithranol cream can also be effective (this is thought as Ingram treatment).


When other treatments fail, some doctors prescribe oral medicine to treat psoriasis. a number of these medications have an effect on the immune system. One such medication, methotrexate (also used as a chemotherapy drug for cancer and for varied types of arthritis), will produce dramatic clearing of the psoriasis lesions. However, it will cause side effects, that the prescribing doctor ought to perform regular blood tests. Another medication of this type is cyclosporine.
Oral retinoids, compounds with vitamin-A-like properties, is gently useful to individuals with severe skin disease. women of childbearing age need to use contraception with this medication and for 3 years later on, as a result of it’s associated with an exaggerated risk for birth defects.

Newer treatments for individuals with severe skin disorder and psoriatic arthritis are currently accessible. several “biologic” medicine, that are made up of human or animal proteins, specialize in controlling the body’s immune reaction. These medicine are quite effective however are very expensive and include adalimumab (Humira),
adalimumab-atto (Amjevita), a biosimilar to Humira, brodalumab (Siliq) etanercept (Enbrel), etanercept-szzs (Erelzi), ixekizumab (Taltz), secukinumab (Cosentyx), and ustekinumab (Stelara).

Natural Remedies :

1. Prevent dry skin
Use a humidifier to stay the air in your home or workplace moist. It will stop dry skin before it starts. Sensitive skin moisturizers also are great at keeping your skin supple and from forming plaques.

2. Dietary supplements
Dietary supplements might help ease psoriasis symptoms from the inside. Fish oil, vitamin D, milk weed, aloe vera, oregon grape, and evening primrose oil are reported to help ease mild symptoms of psoriasis, according to the National psoriasis Foundation. it is vital to only take supplements that don’t interfere with different pre-existing conditions you will have.
3. Try turmeric
Herbs are normally used to treat several conditions. Turmeric has been found to assist minimize psoriasis flare-ups. It will be taken in pill or supplement type or sprinkled on your food. ask your doctor regarding the potential benefits for you. The FDA-approved dosage of turmeric is one.5 to 3.0 grams per day.

4. Eat healthfully
Diet may play a role in managing skin condition. Eliminating meat and fatty snacks might facilitate scale back flare-ups that may be triggered by such foods. Cold water fish, seeds, nuts, and omega-3 fatty acids are noted for their ability to cut back inflammation. this may be useful for managing psoriasis symptoms. olive oil might also have soothing benefits once applied locally to the skin. attempt massaging a couple of tablespoons on your scalp to assist loosen hard plaques throughout your next shower.

5. Avoid fragrances
Most soaps and perfumes have dyes and different chemicals in them that will irritate your skin. Sure, they will cause you to smell nice however they can also inflame psoriasis. Avoid such product once you can, or opt for those with “sensitive skin” labels.

6. Reduce stress
Any chronic condition like skin condition will be a source of stress. {this can|this will|this could|this may} typically transform a vicious cycle once stress itself can worsen psoriasis symptoms. additionally to reducing stress whenever potential, consider incorporating stress-reducing practices like yoga and meditation.

7. Warm baths for itch relief
Hot water is also an irritant for your skin. However, a lukewarm bathtub with Epsom salt, oil, milk, or oil will soothe the haptic sensation and infiltrate scales and plaques. moisten instantly once your bath for double advantages.

8. Light therapy
During light therapy, a doctor will shine ultraviolet radiation on the skin. this type of medical care typically needs consistent and frequent sessions. It ought to be noted that tanning beds don’t seem to be a way of achieving light therapy. an excessive amount of daylight will truly worsen skin condition. This procedure should be done under the direction of your doctor.

9. Stop smoking
Avoid tobacco. Smoking might increase your risk of psoriasis. If you have already got skin condition, it can even make your symptoms more severe.

10. Avoid alcohol
Alcohol may be a trigger for several people that have psoriasis. A study from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard school of medicine found an inflated risk of skin condition among women who drank nonlight beer. people who drank a minimum of 5 nonlight beers per week were nearly twice as probably to develop psoriasis, in comparison to girls who didn’t drink.

How to treat a stye Naturally And Medically ?

How to treat a stye

A Red pimple on eye,a stye, is a small cyst that appears on the skin eyelids and it is not only painpul but is also very irritating and make you look ugly.The most common cause behind the stye is the blocking of eyes glands due to any reason.
Stye is more common in people who touch their eyelids with dirty hands and people with a history of a chalazion.But the problem is not a serious one.


Symptoms include,Red eyelid,Irritation of the eyelids,Pain,Watery eyes,and swelling of the eyelids.

Causes of Stye

Some of the causes are Hormonal changes,stress,use of low quality makeup,blockage of eye gland and some inflammatory diseases of the eyes like acne rosacea,blephritis etc

How to treat a stye Naturally ?

Most of the stye heal on their own with few days while some need home remedies to help them ease the pain and heal faster.

Rub your finger with your palm and then Hold that warm finger on your stye.The heat helps increase blood circulation to the area and promotes drainage of the gland.
Do it for atleast 5-10 times a day .

(2)Use of Teabags
Holding a warm teabag with your eye will help increase the flow of blood around the eye due to which your stye will disappear soon .Apart from this there are some antibacterial properties in the teabag due to which less bacteria grow in your eyes which in turn will help you heal your eyes.Do it for atleast 3-4 times a day untill your stye disappears.

(3)Aloe Vera
Aloe vera juice is one of the best natural remedy for healing stye.Place some aloe juice on your stye for 20 minute and then wash it with warm water and dry it with a soft cloth.

(4)Massage the area Around Your Eyelids
You can massage the area to promote drainage. Massage the area gently with clean hands. Once the stye drains, keep the area clean and avoid touching your eyes. Don’t do it if it hurt you.

(5)Warm Compress
This is one of the best natural remedy for stye .Soak a soft cloth in hot water and wring out the excess.Hold this warm, moist cloth on your closed eyelid for 5 to 10 minutes. It also helps reduce pain and swelling.
Repeat 3 to 4 times a day for 2 weeks

Take one pod of Garlic cut it and Hold the cutted surface with your stye for 2-3 minutes.This treatment should be done atleast 6 times per day until the stye disappear.Chane The Garlic after 2 hours.

How to treat a stye medically ?

  • If your stye is very painful, otc pain killer,such as ibuprofen,or paracetamol may help ease the pain.Keep that in mind If Your Stye is painful and affect your normal life its better to consult your GP.
  • Your doctor may give you a steroid shot to reduce swelling.Your Doctor may also prescribe an antibiotic cream for infections.
  • You can also buy over the counter ointments for your stye at your pharmacy.Avoid using topical steroids for your stye. They may cause side effects. Make sure that any product you use is made to be used in or on the eye. Some antibiotic eye drops also work for external styes.

Migraine Medication /s Or Migraine Treatment

Migraine Medication


Migraine is a type of headache which usually occurs in adolescents or young adults.Headache of migraine occur on one side of the head or in the whole head and 60-80% of migraine headache are familial.Migraine is more common in female than in males.Migraine headache occurs in attacks and each attacks of headache usually last from a few hours to 2 days while the frequency of attacks may varry from one or more attacks in a week to one attack in a year.Migraine is usually precipitated by emotional or physical stress apart from this migraine can also be precipitated by missed meals ,sleep disturbances,menstrual periods,alcohol,foods and oral contraceptives.Severity of Headache varies in different patients it may he throbbing pain or some time it may be dull.migrainenmay also be assoiciated woth vomiting and may be preceded or accompanied by certain neurological symptoms such as luminous visual hallucination.Migraine occur due to the involement of trigeminal the perivascular spaces.This perivascular oedema mau cause the stretching of pain receptors in the dural membrane,causing headache of migraine.Also it has been found that sometimes during migraine,amplitude of pulsation of temporal arteries is increased .During aura there is abnormal release of serotinin from the platelets,but during headache of migraine serum serotinin fall below normal.

There is another type of migraine headache which is more common in males than in females which is called Cluster Headache in this type of headahe there is very severe pain around an eye with redness of the eye and watering from the nose and eye .Usually occurs in people age 30 or more and its attack usually occur after every 12-18 months.Attack occur usually at night and each attack last 1-2 hours.They remain for one to three weeks during each cluster.

Classifiacation Of Migriane Drugs / Migraine Medication /s
There are two group of Migraine Medication /s Which are ,

(A) Drugs For the treatment of Acute Attack

(1)5-HT1 Agonist:


(2)Other Migraine Medication /s


(B)Prophylactic Drugs



Ergotamine is one of the best Migraine Medication and It is an alkaloid obtained from a fungus known as cleviceps purpurea.This Fungus infest the rye and some other grains and grasses.

It is given orally,sublingually,inhalationaly,by rectal route and by intramuscular injection.When given orally it is absorb from the intestine and its absorption is variable.After metabolism the drugs is excreted in urine.Caffeine increases its absorption from the intestine.

Adverse Effects:

Nausea ,vomiting and diarrhea are the most common adverse effects.
Large doses can cause spasm of the blood vessels of the arms and legs thatmay lead to their gangrene.Rarely gangrene of intestine can occur due to spasm of mesentric artieries.


Perilheral vascular disease such as Reynaud disease and buerger these disease arteries of the limb are narrowed .
Collagen disease.
Ischemic heart disease
Its better to avoid in pregnant women though there is no evidence of harmful effects.


These are a group of drugs that are recently being most commonly used in acute attack of migraine.Their mechanism of action appears to be similar to that of ergot alkaloids.


It is a 5HT1B and 5HT1D agonist and it is a great Migraine Medication which is effective in both migraine headache and cluster headache.its effectivenessin these conditions is equal to or more than that of ergot alkaloids.

When given orally only 15% of sumitriptan is absorbed into the systemic circulation.its plasma half life is two to three can be used orally,subcutaneously and as a nasal spray.

Adverse effects:
Sumitriptan is well tolerated .it can cause mild degree of abnormal sensation such as dizziness,muscle weakness,tingling,pain in the chest ,pain in the neck and pain at the site of injection.
As it is short acting several doses of drug maybe need during a prolonged attack of migraine.However no more than two doses should be given per day.

Other triptans


It is also a 5HT1B and 5HT1D agonist.
Use 2.5mg of naratriptan orally after an attack of migraine .
When used orally 40-70% of drug is absorbed from the intestine into systemic circulation.
If migraine recurs then 2.5mg can be used again after 4 hours of intial dose.
If the patient doesn’t respond to the first dose don’t use it again for the same attack.
A maximum of 5mg can be used per day.
Not recommended for patient below 18 year of age.
Plasma half life is about 6 hours
Mechanism and adverse reactions are similar to that of sumitriptan.


This drug is also a 5HT1B and 5HT1D agonist and is also a best Migraine Medication .
Mechanism and adverse effect are similar to that of sumatriptan.
when used orally 40-70% absorbed from the small intestine into the systemic circulation.
10mg can be used orally at the onset of an attack and if the migraine recurs then a second dose can be given after 2 hours of the first dose.
Keep that mind if the patient doesn’t respond to first dose then second dose is not used.
Maximum daily dose is 20mg and it is not recommended for children below 18 years.


Daily recommended Dose is 25 mg.
It is used in a dose of 12.5mg orally as soon as possible after the onset of migraine attack.
For recurrence of migraine a second dose should not be given before 2 hours of the first dose.
If there is no response to the first dose,second dose is not given for the same attack .
It is not recommended in children below 18 years.


It is used in a dose of 40mg orally as soon as possible after the onset of migraine attack and repeated after 2 hours if recurs.
A second dose is not used if there is no response to the first dose.

Contraindications of triptans

Almotriptan is contraindicated in severe hypertension.

All of 5HT1 Agonist are contraindicated in agina pectoris,because they produce spasm of coronary arteries.

Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in wolf-parkinson-white syndrome.

Sumatriptan,rizatriptan,almotriptan,eletriptan,and zolmitriptan are short acting drugs and therefore several doses of these drugs are required during a prolonged attack.

Noratriptan and almotriptan are contraindicated in severe hepatic and renal diseases and in peripheral vascular diseases.


All NSAIDs can be used as a Migraine Medications in the treatment of acute attack of migraine.
Opioids may be used in severe cases of migraine not responding to other drugs.As they cause addiction ,care should be taken during their use.

Prophylactic Migraine Medication /s

Following are the important Migraine Medication /s that can be used in the prevention of migraine.

Drugs          Prophylactic Dose
Aspirin        300mg twice daily
Prpranolol   80-240mg/Day in 3-4 doses
Imipramine 10-150mg daily in single dose
Amitriptyline 10-150mg daily in single dose
Fluoxetine    20-60mg in a single dose
Sertraline     50-200mg in a single dose
Clonidine      0.2-0.6mg daily
Mrthylsergide maleate 4-8 mg daily
Verapamil      80-160mg daily
Ergonovine maleate 0.6-2mg daily
Cyprophetadine   12-20mg daily.

New Antibiotic That is 1000 times more powerful against bacterial resistance

New Antibiotic That is 1000 times more powerful against bacterial resistance

Scientists re-engineered an old version of antibiotic into a life saving drug that is more effective against all those bacteria which were resistant to previous one.because resistance of certain bacteria against antibioics is the major problem to the world health these days.
The World Health Organisation warns antibiotic resistance is one in all the most important threats to international health, food security and development, with major diseases becoming harder to treat as a result of the medication used on them are getting less effective.

The antibiotic, vancomycin, has been prescribed by physcians for 60 years and bacterium are only currently becoming resistant to it.The New Antibiotic That is 1000 times more powerful against bacterial resistance is the newer version of vancomycin .
Researchers at The Scripps research Institute (TSRI) in America have made some changes in Vancomycin and build it 1000 time more powerful than the prevailing one .This antibiotic attack the microorganism from three different sites making it a lot of harder for them to develop resistance.
According to Researchers this version of antibiotic will be ready within the next 5 years.
The researchers said physcians could use the modified type of vancomycin without concern of resistance emerging.

According to some Reports approximately 50,000 people die per annum in USA and Europe because of the development of resistance against antibiotics.

Previous studies by the Researchers team showed it absolutely was possible to add two modifications to vancomycin, a drug they labeled “magical” as a result of its strength against infection, to make it even more potent and reduce the number of the drugs required to have a similar impact.This means that scientists will build a third modification which interferes with a bacterium’s cell wall in a very new way,with promising results. Combined with the previous modifications, this alteration offers vancomycin a 1000 fold increase in activity.

Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones

Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones



Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic broad spectrum antibiotics.These antibiotics were also isolated from natural resources. One of the most important member of quinolone group of antibiotic was Nalidix Acid.The Problem with this compound was that it was narrow spectrum and it has moderate gram negative activity but it has no gram positive activity.Apart from this issue the nalidix acid was poorly distributed in the body and that is why quinolones are not effective for systemic bacterial with the passage of time scientist added flourine with mother compound i.e Nalidix acid to improve their activity  so “a group of broad spectrum antibiotics which are flourinated analogues of nalidix acid are called fluoroquinolones ”
These antibiotics are the most famous drugs these days because of their good absorption and spectrum of activity against all type of bacteria and these agents can be effectively used in systemic infections.

Why they are so important ?

A)Very Good Oral Absorption.
B)Very good distribution means deep peneteration in the tissues very effiently.because of their deep penetretion they can kill intracellular organisms.e.g chlamydia,TB,Legionella,brucella.
C)Newer agents are very broad spectrum.
D)They have high potency.
E)They are very well tolerated (Very safe drugs compare to other antibiotic drugs)

What is the mechanism of action of quinolones on bacteria?
How does quinolone work?

Mechanism of action of Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones :

  • These drugs are bactericidal But the question is how they kill the bacteria ?
    Quinolones And Fluoroquinolones are acting on enzymes called topoisomerases or DNA Gyrase.They inhibit bacterial replication by interfering with their DNA replication pathway. DNA is the core genetic material of the cells, and is responsible for correct functioning of the cell. During protein synthesis and DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA must unwind into one stranded structure, that allows for complementary base pairing to occur and synthesis of messenger RNA to procede. Normally This moving of DNA within the bacterium is completed by enzymes called DNA topoisomerase type 2 or DNA gyrase There are two functional Domains Of Topoisomerase 2 enzyme i.e Nuclease domain And Ligase domain.Basically this DNA gyrase (Nuclease Domain) cut the one side of two stranded DNA  and then (Ligase domain ) reseal it after unwinding.This Process continue and the bacteria keep growing but quinolones and fluoroquinolones inhibit or didn’t allow the enzyme Ligase sub doamin to refix or reseal the broken or cut edge of DNA and that is why the bacteria is unable to replicate or even synthesize proteins.First & Second Generation fluoroquinolones Work On this Enzyme .
  • There is another enzyme which is called topoisomerase type 4 which is little different from the type 2 enzyme they also have two domains but the nulcease domain has two sub domain which is responsible for cutting of untangled DNA into fragments the mechanism of fluoroquinolones is same like Topoisomerase 2 they inhibit the function of Ligase and make it dysfunctional.Nuclease domain keep on cutting the DNA into fragments but the ligase is not able to reseal it and the DNA Convert into small fragments and bacteria die.Third and Fourth generation Work Best on both type 2 and type 4 Topoisomerases.And that is the reason Third and Fourth Generation drugs are more broad spectrum in activity .
  • Initially the quinolone and fluoroquinoles first and second generation drugs were best work on gram negative bacteria.but the newer group work on both gram negative and gram positive .


  • Mnemonics For Mechanism:
  • Quinolones & Fluoroquinolones: Topple the Queen“: Quinolone interferes withTopoisomerase II.

Classification of quinolones and fluoroquinolones

The first generation i.e Nalidix acid is only quinolone other 3 classes are flouroquinolones.All Other compounds are the derivaties of Nalidix acid.Following are some classes of quinolones and fluoroquinolones ;

  • A)First Generation:
  • Nalidix acid
    B)Second Generation :
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Norfloxacin
  • Ofloxacin
  • Lomefloxacin
  • Enoxacin
    Norfloxacin don’t absorb very well and they are not used most commonly While ciprofloxacin is the most commonly used drug in this class.
    C)Third Generation :
  • Levofloxacin
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Sparfloxacin
    (D)Fourth Generation :
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Trovafloxacin

Spectrum of activity 

1)First Generation Nalidix acid is moderatly effective (Not very effective) against gram negative bacteria.This drug is not used these day because of poor distribution in the body so it is use in rare uncomplicated urinary tract infections.because this drug is eliminated from the body through renal system and it concentrate into urinary system.

2)Second Generation
They become more effient against gram negative as compare to Nalidix acid.And Also have some less gram positive coverage but keep in mind it doesn’t work on streptococcus pneumoniae .
Ciprofloxacin is also effective against atypical organism like chalymdia ,mycoplasma both of these organism cause respiratory tract infections.
Means second generation has expanded its spectrum from moderate to more effective against gram negative bacteria some added benefits to gram positive bacteria and to atypical organisms.

Ciprofloxacin show more activity against pseudomonas aeruginosa than other fluoroquinolones.

Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are also good against Mycobacterium tuberculosis,mycobacterium Fortuitum and Mycobacterium Kansasii.but if use alone these are effective against M.avium infection.So for M.avium treatment they have to be combined with other antituberculous drugs.

Norfloxacin shows least activity against both gram postive and gram negative organisms.

Uses / Indications Of Ciprofloxacin

Where not to use this antibiotic ?
Don’t use this antibiotic more often because of the development of resistant strain and due to over usage, ciprofloxacin is failing against bacteria because of development of resistance.
Every doctor know there is one resistance type of organism i.e MRSA (Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus )it is resitant to many other antibiotic and the latest news is even ciprofloxacin is failing on this .
Don’t use this antibiotic in Pneumococcus and Enterococcus infections .

Where to Use Ciprofloxacin ?
A)GIT :Its very effective in traveller diarhea caused by toxic ecoli.
B)Ciprofloxacin is more effective in cystic fibrosis due to infection by pseudomonas auregenosa.
Usually flouroquinolones is contraindicated in children under the age of 18 because in animal model it is approved that flouroqinolones can damage the cartilages and they can produce arthropathy so it should not be used in pregnant women.

C)Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin are effective in treatment of typhoid fever .

D)Ciprofloxacin can be used to eradicate the nasopharyngeal carrier -state with meningococci.

E)Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice in the treatment and prevention of anthranx.

3)Third Generation: Levofloxacin
Good against gram negative but has more activity against gram positive including streptococcus pnemoniea means levofloxacin can be used in pnemonia and that is why this is also called respiratory quinolones .
Levofloxacin is also effective against chlamydia ,mycoplasma and atypical pnemonia.

Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin show improved activity against streptococci and also effective against penicillin resistant pneumococci.

DON’T Use this antibiotic
if you are allergic to this drug or other drugs of this class like ciprofloxacin,norfloxacin,moxifloxacin.

Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate  or didanosine powder or chewable tablets within 2 hours before or after you take levofloxacin.

Before taking levofloxacin, tell your doctor if you have muscle weakness ,kidney or liver disease,or trouble breathing,seizures,joint problems, diabetes, myasthenia gravis, a history of head injury of brain tumor, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome,low levels of potassium in your blood,or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Levofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon, especially in the Achilles’ tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, or if you have had a kidney,heart, or lung transplant.
if you take steroid medication, Stop taking levofloxacin and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness.

Uses of levofloxacin
Levofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections that cause bronchitis or pneumonia,means that action of this drug is more extended against pneumococci and also used to treat people who have been exposed to anthrax or plague.
Levofloxacin is also used to treat bacterial infections of the sinuses,skin,kidneys, bladder, or prostate.

4)Fourth Generation.Moxifloxacin
Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin both are called respiratory quinolones .
Its spectrum of activity further broaden against gram positive cocci and gram positive bacilli .
Moxifloxacin can kill the anaerobic organisms and that is why this can be used in mixed infections .

Moxifloxacin ,Gatifloxacin,Sparfloxacin and Gemifloxacin are effective against gram positive organism especially against pneumococci and to some extent staphylococci.

Moxifloxacin Uses
Moxifloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

Moxifloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections, including:
community acquired pneumonia,throat, sinus, and lung infections stomach infections skin infections

Don’t Touch It : Drug That Can Kill You If You Touch It

Drug That Can Kill You If You Touch It
Photo Credit:

Drug That Can Kill You If You Touch It :US police have issued an imperative public alert when a series of deaths from a Drug That Can Kill You If You Touch It .

The opioid referred to as furanyl fentanyl – a powerful version of the artificial painkiller analgesic 50 times more stronger than heroin– will cause a fatal overdose simply by being absorbed through the skin. It’s reportedly caused nineteen deaths within the state of Georgia over the last year.

The warning comes when 10kgs of pills and powder were taken over during a raid on a pill industrial plant in January, Georgia Bureau of Investigation (GBI) employees became alarmed once they discovered that a box containing pills marked ‘Oxycodone’, a non-hazardous opioid, was in fact furanyl fentanyl.

The (GBI) has reacted to the quantity of overdoses and incidents associated with the drug, as well as others, by provision a public safety alert Thursday.

The drug was placed on the Schedule I list of controlled substances last year after being related to 128 deaths across 5 states in 2015 and 2016. Schedule I is reserved for medication with the very best levels of addictiveness.
“U-47700 and furanyl fentanyl are each Schedule I medication and employed in a similar manner as heroin. Schedule I medication have a high potential for abuse and no presently accepted medical treatment use within the U.S. The medication are distributed in either powder or Tablet form,” GBI said in a very statement.

“Because furanyl Fentanyl and U-47700 are fatal at terribly low doses, law enforcement and therefore the public should use caution once handling these medication. they’ll be inhaled or absorbed through the skin and are very deadly within the smallest quantities.”

Gwinnett County Deputy Shannon Volkadov said: “When I acknowledged what I truly had, [I was] undoubtedly slightly frightened as a result of the quantity that was submitted. something could have happened, however fortunately with the protecting gear and therefore the staff that I had, every thing went Ok.”

According to a GBI Crime research lab chemist Dineen Kilcrease“Oxycodone to the touch it’s still going to be terribly safe. To the touch Furanyl analgesic might fully be fatal, simply through the skin.”

Fentanyl itself has been on the increase within the US in recent years, surpassing heroin because the most ordinarily detected drug in fatal opioid overdoses in Long Island and Connecticut. Last year, the drug was responsible for 188 fatal overdoses in Connecticut, according to figures from the state’s chief doctor.