Important Antidotes List


What are Antidotes ? 

The Word Antidote Derived From A Greek Word “antididonai”  Which Means Give Against So ” Antidotes are Any Substance  which Are Used To oppose the effects of poisons without causing any damage to The body” .

How The Poison Enter Into The Body ?

The Poison In Any Form may be  taken in by the breath Or swallowed, Absorbed Through the thinner and more delicate mucous membranes, Or absorbed through the skin, or implanted by stings, bites, or other wounds.

There Are A lot Of Antidotes In The Medical Field Today But Some Antidotes Are Very Important And Need To Be Remembered Because Of Their Frequent Use In The Emergency Situations.  Knowledge About Antidotes Is Very Important For All Medical Professionals Especially Those Who Are Working In Health Care Settings.Here Are Some Of The Types And List Of Very Important And Frequently Used Antidotes ;

Types of Antidotes

1:Universal Antidotes :This type of antidote is Given when unknown poison is ingested

(1):powdered charcoal 2 parts
(2):Magnesium oxide 1 part
(3):Tannic Acid 1 Part

2:Chemical Antidotes :These substances neutrilize the chemical action or oxidize the poison into nontoxic or insolouble form

Dilute alkali(milk of magnesia)

Dilute acetic acid,

Potassium permangante

Tannin(strong tea).

3:Physiological or pharmacological Antidotes
These produce effects opposite to that of poison

Naloxone for morphine,

Atropine and oxime for organophosphorous poison,

N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen

4:Mechanical or physical Antidotes :
These substances prevents the absorption of poison by their presence
eg:Activated charcoal is used for strychinine,emulcents(fats,oils,milk,eggalbumin) are used for corrosive and irritant poisoning,Bulky food used for glass poisoning ,And mineral poisoning(dose 30-60 gms for childreb and 60-100gms ofr adults)

5:Chelating agents:
These are substances which form chelates(non ionized complexes) with cations.These are mostly used in heavy metal poisoning

N-pencillamine for mercury,lead,copper

BAL(dimercepol) is used in heavy metal poisons

EDTA is used in Arsenic,mercury,lead
versenate is used in Arsenic,mercury and lead
Desferoxamine is used for iron.

Important Antidotes List :

Antidotes For

Non-specific poisons except cyanide, iron, lithium, caustics and alcohol = Activated charcoal

Cobra bite = Snake Anti-Venin.

Heparin = Protamine Sulfate

GAS=Use artificial respiration,Remove patient to air, apply heat to extremities; send for doctor.

ABSINTHE = Give an active emetic; then flaxseed tea freely; stimulate

Insulin reaction = Glucose (Dextrose 50%)

ALKALI, VOLATILE = Drink freely of water with vinegar or lemon juice in it.

ANTIMONIAL WINE = Give warm water freely to encourage vomiting.

AQUA FORTIS = Magnesia or soap dissolved in water, every two minutes.

BED BUG POISON = Give milk or white of eggs in large quantities.

BELLADONNA = Active emetic; stimulate.

Acetaminophen/Paracetamol  = N-Acetylcysteine or Mucomyst

Anticholinergics, diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate =Physostigmine

BenzodiazepinesZaleplonZolpidem = Flumazenil (Romazicon)

Calcium Channel Blockers = Calcium Chloride, Glucagon

Cyanide = Amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate

Iron  = Deferoxamine

For Chemicals causing methemoglobinemia in patients with G6PD deficiency = Vitamin C
For Lead = EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer

Methanol = Folic acid

AMMONIA = Lemon juice, diluted vinegar or acetic acid.

Methotrexate = Leucovorin calcium

Potassium = Insulin + Glucose, Kayexalate

MERCURY = White of eggs freely; afterwards evacuate; mild drinks

Valproic acid  = L-Carnitine

Isoniazid, ethylene glycol = Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6)

Tricyclic antidepressants = phyostigmine or NaHCO3

Sulfonylureas = Octreotide (Sandostatin )

Alpha  agonists (e.g., clonidine), Opioids (e.g., codeine, diphenoxylate, fentanyl, heroin, meperidine, morphine and propoxyphene = Naloxone

Arsenic,  Copper,  Lead,  Mercury = D-Penicillamine (Cuprimine )

Neuromuscular blockade = anticholinesterase agents.

Anticholinesterase = atropine sulfate or pralidoxime.

Fluoride ingestion = Calcium salts

Digoxin = digibind digoxine immune fab

Beta blockers and calciumchannel blockers = glucagon

Ergotamine = Heparin

Dopamine = Phentolamine.

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Scientists Develop Artificial Womb To Help Premature Babies

Artificial Womb

Scientists Develop Artificial Womb To Help Premature Babies:
Scientists in the United States have developed a womb-like bag called an extra-uterine support device that would transform care for extremely premature babies, considerably rising probabilities of survival.While the new development isn’t specifically a synthetic uterus tank, physicians have created a uterus-like “biobag” that’s capable of sustaining premature foetal lambs very shortly when they start development.
Doctors said that the pioneering approach may radically improve outcomes for babies born so early that they can not breathe, feed or fight infection without medical help.

The team spent three years evolving their system through a series of four prototypes – starting with a glass incubator tank and reaching to the present fluid-filled bag.

Six preterm lambs tested within the most up-to-date prototype were physiologically similar to a 23- or 24-week-gestation human baby and were ready to grow during a temperature-controlled, near-sterile surroundings

In pre-clinical studies with lambs, the researchers were ready to mimic the uterus surroundings and therefore the functions of the placenta, giving premature offspring a vital chance to develop their lungs and other organs.
The lambs were kept within the biobags for four weeks. throughout this time, they grew hair; their lungs developed; and that they reached the point where they might survive on their own.

Remarkably, the eight lambs within the trial developed commonly within the artificial womb and every survived, proving that the biobag with success mimicked the natural conditions found within the uterus—and paving the means for a brand new life-saving device for humans.

At that age, a human baby weighs very little quite 500 grams, its lungs don’t seem to be ready to deal with air and its probabilities of survival are low. Death rates are up to 70 % and people who do survive face life-long disability.

The scientists created amniotic fluid in their science lab and originated the system so that this flowed into and out of the bag.
The team is in discussions with the United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and predicts that babies might be incubated within the system within three years in the 1st clinical test.
In light of this progress, specialists assert that artificial wombs could also be a reality within the next 10-20 Years.

Drugs Used In Pregnancy

Drugs Used In Pregnancy


Drugs Can Have Harmful Effects On The Fetus At any Time In Pregnany.Its Very Important To Keep In Mind When Prescribing For A Pregnant Women.In The First Trimester Of Pregnany Drugs Can Produce Malformation (Teratogenesis).Third And eleventh Week Of Pregnany Is more Critical Time For Teratogenesity.

The Second And Third Trimester Can Effect The Growth And Functional development Of The Fetus. And Drugs Given Just Before Term Or During Labour Can Have Adverse Effects On The Neonates Or On The Labour.

According To FDA There Are Five Categories Of Drugs ,A,B,C,D or X

Category A

Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the foetus within the first trimester of pregnancy (and there’s no evidence of risk in later trimesters).

Category B

Animal studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the foetus and there are not any satisfactory and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

Category C

Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse impact on the foetus and there are not any adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, however potential advantages might warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.

Category D

There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction information from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, however potential advantages might warrant use of the drug in pregnant girls despite potential risks.

Category X

Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated foetal abnormalities and/or there’s positive proof of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction information from investigational or marketing expertise, and therefore the risks concerned in use of the drug in pregnant girls clearly outweigh potential advantages.


In This Article We Will Talk About The Drugs Safely Used During Pregnancy In general, it’s best to avoid any unnecessary Use Of Drugs early in your pregnancy. During the first trimester, fetal organs develop rapidly, making them extremely vulnerable to the potential risks of drugs.

Prescription Drugs Used In Pregnancy

  • Folic Acid and Vitamin B6
  • Levothyroxine
  • Insulin
  • During 18 and 32 weeks of pregnancy may increase the risk of hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children according to a study published in JAMA Pediatrics.)
  • Methyl dopa, and hydralazine
  • Heparin
  • Some antibiotics namely Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Cephalosporins, Erythromycin (not estolate)

Drugs Used In Pregnancy For Pain Relief

A cold compress and rest will help alleviate headaches and muscle pain throughout pregnancy, however if you wish further relief, your doctor might recommend acetaminophen. once this drug is used as directed, it is a safe choice. However, it is best to avoid aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen and naproxen . Some studies recommend that taking these medications close to conception or in early pregnancy might increase the chance of miscarriage and birth defects.

Drugs Used In Pregnancy For Colds & Allergies

Few women get through 9 months without cold or hypersensitivity reaction symptoms. The safest way to go is to try nondrug remedies: Rest, drink a lot of fluids -particularly warm ones — and use a saline nasal spray to assist relieve stuffiness. the great news is that while a cold will make you miserable, it poses no special risks throughout pregnancy. The flu, however, are often more serious in pregnant ladies, and typically leads to pneumonia. Since influenza shots are safe for both you and baby, it’s knowing get one throughout flu season if you are in your second or third trimester.

If cold or hypersensitivity reaction symptoms interfere together with your ability to eat or sleep, your health care provider could suggest medication, especially if you are past the first trimester. several doctors believe the antihistamine chlorpheniramine  is that the safest choice, because it has been used for several years by pregnant ladies and is not better-known to cause birth defects. unfortunately, very little is known regarding newer medication like loratadine therefore it’s wise to avoid them.

To relieve a cough, doctors usually recommend a drug known as dextromethorphan  However, you should avoid cough product that contain iodine, which might cause doubtless life-threatening thyroid problems within the fetus, still as those that contain high levels of alcohol.

If you need a decongestant, your doctor could recommend a nasal spray that contains oxymetazoline, as a result of only alittle quantity of the drug is absorbed into your system.

Drugs Used In Pregnancy For Digestive Discomforts

Heartburn, constipation, and hemorrhoids are among the foremost common complaints of pregnancy. Luckily, there are many drug-free solutions you’ll use to stop these problems. to move off heartburn, avoid consumption large meals, particularly in the evening, and select smaller, more frequent ones instead. you should additionally steer clear of rich, fried, or spicy foods, which frequently trigger stomach irritation. Sleeping on an incline may stop the contents of your stomach from splashing into your esophagus, causing symptom.

If symptoms persist, your doctor could suggest a safe antacid, like calcium carbonate (Tums). however if additional relief is required, your doctor could recommend sucralfate, usually called carafate, a drug that coats and protects the abdomen lining.

To prevent constipation and also the hemorrhoids that usually follow, drink lots of water and eat fiber-rich foods. Exercise, along with your doctor’s approval, may facilitate to keep constipation unfree. If issues persist, your doctor could recommend a bulk-fiber laxative, like Metamucil or Fiberall. However, you should avoid stimulant laxatives, like castor oil, which may trigger labor. once treating hemorrhoids, use product that contain glycerine or witch hazel, however avoid hydrocortisone, that hasn’t verified to be entirely safe and might be absorbed into your system.


Top 100 Drugs Of Choice For Different Diseases

Drugs Of Choice

Drugs Of Choice For Different Diseases are categorized on the basis of diseases .Following are the most important classes of drugs used as a first choice in the treatment of different diseases .

Drugs Of Choice List in infections

(1)Penicillin G
Streptococcus pneumoniae, S.Viridans,Hemolytic Streptococci group A,B,C,G,Staphylococcus (Non-Penicillinase producing)
Neisseria Meningitidis,Clostridium(ABC)Bacillus Cereus,Actinomyces.Treponema Pallidum, T.Pertene
Listeria,Enterococcus faecalis.
MRSA,Coagulase negative staphylococcus,Enterococcus faecium.
Bacillus anthracis,
Borelia burgdorferi, B.Recurrentis.
Chalmydia & Rickettsiae.
(6) Cotrimoxazole
(7) Azithromycin
Hemophilus ducreyi & Mycoplasma .
(8) Ceftriaxone
Burkholderia pseudomallei

Drugs Of Choice List in pregnancy (12)Choloroquine
Drug of choice for malaria in pregnancy
(13) Alpha-Methyldopa
DoC for hypertension in pregnancy
DOC for anticoagulation in pregnancy.
DOC for hypertensive crisis in pregnant women.
Analgesic DOC
DoC for epilepsy in pregnant women.
(18)Doxylamine & Pyridoxine
DoC for nausea in pregnancy.

Drugs Of Choice List for various types of seizures: (19)Valproate
Tonic seizures
Absence seizures
Grand mal (GTCS)
Clonic seizures
Atonic seizures
Myoclonic seizures
Partial seizures
Infantile spasm with tuberous sclerosis
Infantile spasm
(23)Lorazepam (IV)
Status epilepticus
Febrile seizures
(25)Magnesium Sulphate
Seizure in eclampsia

Drugs Of Choice List in poisoning  (26)Physostigmine
Atropine, Belladona  & Dhatura poisoning
Carbamate,Early mushroom poisoning,Organophosphate poisoning.
Benzodiazepine poisoning
Acetaminophen poisoning
Opoid poisoning
Chronic iron poisoning
Acute iron poisoning
Beta blockers poisoning
(34)Amyl nitrate
Cyanide poisoning

Drugs Of Choice List in bronchial asthma (35)Salbutamol
Acute attack of bronchial ashtma in normal patient and pregnant women.
Exercise & Aspirin-induced acute attack of bronchial asthma.
Acute attack of bronchial asthma during labour.
Acute attack of bronchial ashtma on beta-blockers therapy.
Prophylaxis of bronchial asthma ,exercise induced and aspirin-induced asthma.

Drugs Of Choice List In Antimicrobials Prophylaxis (38)Ampicillin
Group B streptococcus infection
Endocarditis and Otitis media
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Pertussis
(41)Benzathine penicillin
Rheumatic fever
(42)Procaine Penicillin
Gonorrhea and syphilis
Rickettsial infection and plague.
Surgical Prophylaxis
(46)Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole
Toxoplasmosis , Pneumocystis jerveci UTI
Hemophilus influenza type B.
Influenza Type A & B.

Anesthetic Drugs Of Choice List (49)Propofol
Day care
Congenital heart disease,ASD,VSD,PDA
Ischemic heart disease
Asthma and COPD
CHF, and congenital heart disease (Right to left shunt)
Electroconvulsion therapy
Cardiac surgery
For producing deliberate hypotension

Drugs Of Choice List in Endocrinological Disorders (56)Insulin
Type 1 DM
Diabetes Mellitus in pregnancy.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Uncontrolled DM.
Type 2 DM
Diabetes mellitus in obesity
Erectile Dysfunction
Acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency.
Post prandial hyperglycemia.
Ectopic pregnancy
Post partum hemorrhage
Induction of labour
Andogenital alopecia.

Drugs of choice in fungal infections(66)Amphotericin B
Meningeal histoplasmosis
Endocarditis by candida
Sever or CNS blastomycosis
Induction i cryptococcal meningitis(For 2 weeks)
Candida albicans
Maintainance in cryptococcal meningitis
Non meningeal histoplasmosis
Para Coccidiodomycosis
Mild or non CNS blastomycosis
Penicillium mameffei
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
Candida glabarata,and candida krusei .

Drugs of choice in gastrointestinal disorders(71)PPIs
Gastric ulcer ,Duodenal ulcer ,stress ulcer,NSAIDs-induced ulcer.
GERD,& Zolinger elison syndrome.
Migraine associated or drug or disease associated vomiting
Levodopa induced vomiting
Post operative or radiation induced vomiting
(75)5HT3 antagonist
Cisplatin induced early vomiting
Hepatic encephalopathy
(77)Methyl naltrexone
Opioid induced constipation
Diarhea in carcinoid syndrome

Drugs of choice in Hematological Disorders (79)Warfarin
DVT prophylaxis
Chronic atrial fibrillation in mitral stenosis, advanced kidney disease and mechanical prosthetic heart valves
Initiation of therapy in DVT.
(81)Vitamin K
Warfarin overdose
Heparin overdose

Drugs of Choice in Hypertension (83)Thiazide diuretics
Hypertension With BPH
(85)Beta Blockers
Hypertension with ischemic heart disease.(Angina)
(86)ACE inhibitors
Hypertension with chronic kidney diseases.
(87)Alpha methylDopa
Hypertension in pregnancy
Hypertensive emergencies with cheese reaction
Hypertensive emergencies in aortic dissection.
Hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy .

Drugs of choice in shock(91)Adrenaline
Anaphylactic shock
(92)Dopamine or nor adrenaline
Cardiogenic shock
Distributive shock
Secondary shock
Shock with oliguria
Shock due to adrenal insufficiency

Drugs of choice For viral diseases(97)Ribavirin
Viral hemorrhagic fever
Respiratory syncytial virus(in high-risk patient
Oseltamivir-resistant influenza
Seasonal influenza and avian influenza (bird flu)
Herpes simplex and varicella.
Acute herpes zoster.
Cytomegalovirus retinitis.