What are Antidotes ?
The Word Antidote Derived From A Greek Word “antididonai” Which Means Give Against So ” Antidotes are Any Substance which Are Used To oppose the effects of poisons without causing any damage to The body” .
How The Poison Enter Into The Body ?
The Poison In Any Form may be taken in by the breath Or swallowed, Absorbed Through the thinner and more delicate mucous membranes, Or absorbed through the skin, or implanted by stings, bites, or other wounds.
There Are A lot Of Antidotes In The Medical Field Today But Some Antidotes Are Very Important And Need To Be Remembered Because Of Their Frequent Use In The Emergency Situations. Knowledge About Antidotes Is Very Important For All Medical Professionals Especially Those Who Are Working In Health Care Settings.Here Are Some Of The Types And List Of Very Important And Frequently Used Antidotes ;
Types of Antidotes
1:Universal Antidotes :This type of antidote is Given when unknown poison is ingested
(1):powdered charcoal 2 parts
(2):Magnesium oxide 1 part
(3):Tannic Acid 1 Part
2:Chemical Antidotes :These substances neutrilize the chemical action or oxidize the poison into nontoxic or insolouble form
Dilute alkali(milk of magnesia)
Dilute acetic acid,
3:Physiological or pharmacological Antidotes
These produce effects opposite to that of poison
Naloxone for morphine,
Atropine and oxime for organophosphorous poison,
N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen
4:Mechanical or physical Antidotes :
These substances prevents the absorption of poison by their presence
eg:Activated charcoal is used for strychinine,emulcents(fats,oils,milk,eggalbumin) are used for corrosive and irritant poisoning,Bulky food used for glass poisoning ,And mineral poisoning(dose 30-60 gms for childreb and 60-100gms ofr adults)
These are substances which form chelates(non ionized complexes) with cations.These are mostly used in heavy metal poisoning
N-pencillamine for mercury,lead,copper
BAL(dimercepol) is used in heavy metal poisons
EDTA is used in Arsenic,mercury,lead
versenate is used in Arsenic,mercury and lead
Desferoxamine is used for iron.
Important Antidotes List :
Non-specific poisons except cyanide, iron, lithium, caustics and alcohol = Activated charcoal
Cobra bite = Snake Anti-Venin.
Heparin = Protamine Sulfate
GAS=Use artificial respiration,Remove patient to air, apply heat to extremities; send for doctor.
ABSINTHE = Give an active emetic; then flaxseed tea freely; stimulate
Insulin reaction = Glucose (Dextrose 50%)
ALKALI, VOLATILE = Drink freely of water with vinegar or lemon juice in it.
ANTIMONIAL WINE = Give warm water freely to encourage vomiting.
AQUA FORTIS = Magnesia or soap dissolved in water, every two minutes.
BED BUG POISON = Give milk or white of eggs in large quantities.
BELLADONNA = Active emetic; stimulate.
Acetaminophen/Paracetamol = N-Acetylcysteine or Mucomyst
Anticholinergics, diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate =Physostigmine
BenzodiazepinesZaleplonZolpidem = Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Calcium Channel Blockers = Calcium Chloride, Glucagon
Cyanide = Amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate
Iron = Deferoxamine
For Chemicals causing methemoglobinemia in patients with G6PD deficiency = Vitamin C
For Lead = EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer
Methanol = Folic acid
AMMONIA = Lemon juice, diluted vinegar or acetic acid.
Methotrexate = Leucovorin calcium
Potassium = Insulin + Glucose, Kayexalate
MERCURY = White of eggs freely; afterwards evacuate; mild drinks
Valproic acid = L-Carnitine
Isoniazid, ethylene glycol = Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6)
Tricyclic antidepressants = phyostigmine or NaHCO3
Sulfonylureas = Octreotide (Sandostatin )
Alpha agonists (e.g., clonidine), Opioids (e.g., codeine, diphenoxylate, fentanyl, heroin, meperidine, morphine and propoxyphene = Naloxone
Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Mercury = D-Penicillamine (Cuprimine )
Neuromuscular blockade = anticholinesterase agents.
Anticholinesterase = atropine sulfate or pralidoxime.
Fluoride ingestion = Calcium salts
Digoxin = digibind digoxine immune fab
Beta blockers and calciumchannel blockers = glucagon
Ergotamine = Heparin
Dopamine = Phentolamine.