Life Saving Drugs Every One Should Know

Life Saving Drugs

Life Saving Drugs:

According To WHO “A Drug May Be Defined As Any Substance Which Is Used Or Intended to Be used For Modifying Or Exploring Physiological System Or Pathological States For the Benefits Of Recipient” So Life Saving Drugs Are Those Drugs Which Save Lives In Case Of Emergency. These Drugs Have The Capability To Hold Life Or Prevent Further Damage And Complications.These Drugs Are Used In Emergency Situation ,Intensive Care units,.These Drugs Help Patient Close To Life.The List Of Life Saving Drugs Are Not Small But some Of the Agents are Listed Below

(1) Drugs Used In Severe Bleeding

(a)Vitamin -k

(b)Epinephrine

(c)Norepinephrine

(2)Drugs Used In Hypertensive Emergency

(a)Nitric Oxide
(3)Drugs Used In Myocardial Infarction (MI)

(a)Nifedinpine (Capsule)

(b)Digoxin (Inj)

(c)Isoprenaline (Inj)

(d)Calcium Chloride (Inj)

(e)Meperidine Hydrochloride (Inj)

(f)Heparin (Inj)

(g)Nitroglycerine (Inj)

(h)Streptokinase (Inj)

(i)Propanolo (Inj)

(j)Protamine Sulphate (Inj)

(k)Dopamine Hydrochloride (Inj)

(l)Amino caproic Acid (Inj)

(m)Lignocaine Hydrochloride

(4)Drugs Used In Respiratory Failure

(a)Oxygen Gas   I.P/B.P

(b)Nikenamide (Inj)

(5)Drugs Used In Anaphylactic Shock

(a)Epinephrine hydrochloride (Adrenaline) (Inj)

(b)Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate (Inj)

(c)Sodabicarb (Inj)

(6)Drugs Used In status Epilepticus

(a)Phenobarbitone (Inj)

(b)Phenytoin Sodium (Inj)

(c) Carbamazepine (Inj)

(7)Drugs Used In Peripheral Circulatory Collapse

(a)Oxygen Gas   I.P/B.P

(b)Glucose 25% (Inj)

(c)Dopamine Hydrochloride (Inj)

(d)Normal Saline (I.V)

(e)Ringer Solution (I.V)

(8)Drugs Used In Treatment Of Hypoglycemia: (In Adult And In Childrens)

a)Glucagon (I.M) Or S.C Inj

(9)Drug Used In Treatment Of Sever Angina Attack In Adult:

(a)Glycerol Trinitrate  (Sublingual Spray)

(10)Drug Used In Pain relief in emergency rescue situations (adults and children):

(a)Medical gas mixture of 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen  (Inhalational form)

(11)Drugs Used In Treatment of acute asthmatic attack (adults and children):

(a)Salbutamol (Inhalor)

(12)Antisnake venon inj  polyvalent Injection

(13)Rabies vaccine Injection

(14)Tetanus Toxoid Injection

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General Pharmacology Definitions And Basic Concepts

Pharmacology

1)PHARMACOLOGY:

It is a branch of science that Deal with interaction of drugs with living organisms.Pharmacology incorporates the information of history,source,physical and chemical properties,compounding,biochemical and physiological effects,mechanism of action,absorption,distribution,biotransformation,excretion,and restorative and different employments of medications.

2)Drugs:

A drug is a comprehensively characterized as any substance specialist that causes changes in natural Functions in a living organism.some medications are framed inside living organism,such as hormones(insulin)Neurotransmitters(noradrenaline),etc.Drugs That are brought into the body from outside are known as xenobiotics.Most of the medications tie with a particular particle in a living being and cause an adjustment in its biological function by invigorating it.This atom directs a few capacities in the living life form and is known as receptor.There are some different medications that rear with the receptor yet don’t bring about its stimulation.they additionally keep the agonsit from authoritative with the receptors,such medications are known as antagonists.The sub-atomic weight of the most medications weight from 100-1000.However there are a few medications whose sub-atomic weight is very less, for example, that of lithium which is just 7.there are some drugs that have a high sub-atomic weight for example,alteplase has a sub-atomic weight of 59050.

3)Dose:

A determined measure of medication endorsed to be taken at one time.

4)Pharmacokinetics:

Branch Of Pharmacology That manage the absorption,distribution,metabolism and excretion of drugs.

5)Pharmacodynamics:

Branch Of Pharmacology Which  manages the physioligical and biochemical impacts of drugs and their system of activity.

6)Pharmacotherapeutics:

Pharmacotherapeutics manage the utilization of medications for counteracting and treating disease.

7)Toxicology:

It is a part of pharmacology that arrangement with the unfriendly impact of medications on living organisms.in expansion to drugs utilized as a part of therapy,it additionally manages numerous different chemicals that might be in charge of household,envionmental or industrial intoxications.

8)Medical Pharmacology:

It is a branch science and pharmacology which manage the substances used to prevent,diagnose and treat infections.

9)Pharmacognosy:

It is a branch of pharmacology which manages the organic and monetary components of common medications and their constituents.

10)Clinical pharmacology:

It is the scientific investigation of medications taken by Human being.

11)Pharmacy:

It is a branch of health sciences that arrangement with the preparation,dispensing and legitimate usage of medications.

12)Pharmacopoeia:

Pharmacopeia is a book that contains a list of item utilized as a part of prescription with descriptions,chemical tests for deciding their character and purity,and formulas for specific mixtures of these substances.it additionally for the most part contains an announcement of normal dosage.we commonly refers to two sorts of pharmacopeia.
1)British Pharmacopoeia(BP)
2)United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

We will Upload More Pharmacology Topics Chapter wise So Keep Visiting Our Site.

10 Most Devastating Diseases that could wipe out humanity

Diseases that could wipe out humanity

Below, are 10 Diseases That Could Wipe Out Humanity At any time.

10)Ebola Virus:

Ebola seems to be the buzzword of 2014.When This apocalyptic disease spread through out  west Africa at an alarming rate.The epidemic mainly hit the Liberia,Seirra leone and Guinea With similar outbreak occurring elsewhere.It is Thought that
spread by fruit bats which Host The Disease and Infect Animals Like Monkey and Chimpanzees and Gorrilas.These Infected  animals are then handled and eaten by Humans as bush meat Leading to human transmission.The Fatality rate Was thought To be As High As 70%  with Symptoms Leading To A decrease In Liver And Kidney Function And Causing Both Internal and External Bleeding.The Death Toll Reach More Then 11000 In Just 2 Years.

9)Swine Flu:

The Director General Of The World health organization Described The 2009 spread of swine flu As “the First pandemic of 21 century”.The Virus Which First Emerged In 2009 in Mexico Quickly Become A Global Pandemic That Spread To 214 Countries And Caused Upto 20,3000 Deaths.

The Flu Strain Also Known As H1N1,Was A unique Mutation;Genetically Similar To A Mixture Of Swine  Avian And Human Flu.And Scientist Remain Wary As To How The Virus Would Continue To Mutate During Flu Season.

Unlike Other Human Flu Strains Healthy Young People And Pregnant Women Were Most Vulnerable To The Virus,Due To The Lack of Natural immunization.Swine Flu Patients Suffered From Rapid Deterioration Which Caused Pneumonia or Respiratory Failure.

8)Marburg virus :

A highly fatal disease, The marburg virus is among the most harmful pathogens known to infect humans.The first outbreak on record occurred as recently as 1967.It struck the German towns of marburg And Frankfurt, As well as Belgrade, The capital of Serbia.After Gwrman workers were exposed to the tissue of infected monkeys.The virus caused its victims to experience flu like symptoms which quickly escalated leading to patient skin peeling off , which caused profuse bleeding. Although the 1967 outbreak was contained the virus occasionally resurfaces most notably in the late 90s in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in 2005 in Angola.

7) The plaque:

One of the most devastating pandemic in human history,The black death killed up to 60% of Europe between 1346 And 1353.The devastating disease spread along maritime trade routes.it was carried by an infected with plaque carrying fleas that traveled abroad merchant ships.many plaque victims died with in just two days of development the harrowing symptoms:; Which include rashes,Fever, Vomiting blood and grotesquely swollen lymph glands.while today the plaque is no longer at pandemic level, the disease hasn’t been eradicated and a handful of people continue to catch the plaque from mice each year in US and other part of the world.

6)Pox:

A Disease That Has existed since 10,000 BC –The Highly Infectious Small Pox –Was Gloably Eradicated In 1980.The Disease Known For Causing Fluid Filled Blisters,Had An Overall Fatality Rate Of 30% And Also Caused a Host Of Complications Such As Blindness Or pneumonia.Despite Its Eradication ,There Are Fears That The Pox Could Be Resurrected And Used As Bio-weapon.In 2001 an Australian Research Team accidentally created a modified Form Of Mouse Pox With The IL-4 Gene Which Had A 100% Killed Rate For The Mice Exposed To It.Reaserch Scientist Ron Jackson Stated That If This Gene Was Inserted Into Human Small Pox It Would Be safe To assumed That the gene would increase The Lethality Quite Dramatically.

5)SARS (Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome):

It Is A highly Contagious And Life Threatening Virus Originating in china in 2002 The Virus Is Thought To Have Emerged After an Animal Strain Mutated.Which Enabled It To Infect Humans.With No Know Treatment The Infection Quickly Spread To Other asian Countries Even UK And Canada.There Were 8000 Reported Deaths With a 1 In 10 chance Of Fatality At The Time.The Airborne Virus Was Extremly contagious and spread to the small droplets of a sneeze or cough.The Infection Cause Flu Like Symptoms Which Leads To Lungs Infection,Restricting the oxygen in blood.

4)Drugs Resistant Bacteria:

The Development Of Antibiotic has been instrumental in increasing the human lifespan.Bacterial meningitis ,organ transplants and even simple diseases all carried much higher  fatality rate before antibiotics came along.But Antibiotic Have come  at a price.Bacteria-like all other organisms are able to evolve.Infact they do  so in incredible rate.Some muatate In About 20 minutes.Because of This ,They Are Slowly Aquiring a resistance To antibiotics.Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Currently Infect More Then 2 million People In The US Alone With Aproximately 23000 Of Those infected dying.One of the most infamous of these drug resistant bacteria is methicillin Resistant –Staphylococcus  Aureus ,Better Known As MRSA.

According Center For Disease Control 80,000 American Are infected by MRSA Every Year While Most recover ,Almost 11000 Of these People Die.

3)Spanish Flu:

One Of The deadliest Natural Disaster In Human History,The 1918 Flu Pandemic  Infected Half a Billion People Ultimately Wiping Out 50 Millions Worldwide.First Surfacing During World War 1 ,The Virus Was able to Spread globally As soldiers Travelled To new Locations In Order to fight.This Virus Was Especially Deadly To young healthy adults.As it infected people by overstimulating Their Immune System And turning them against their bodies.The symptoms were so sever that The Virus Would cause hemorrhages.This would Cause Patients To bleed Perfusely From Their Ear or Nose with Those Unable To Recover Eventaully Drowned In Their Own Body Fluids.

2) Tuberculosis:

An incredible one third of the world population is thought to be infected with TB.The ancient Disease has been Plaguing mankind since the begining of recorded Human history.An almost Certain Death Sentence If Left untreated ,those with active TB suffer symptoms of a chronic ,bloody cough and waste away ,due to rapid weight loss.In 1994 the first succefull anti-TB Drugs Arrived ,Leading To a Decline In the Disease.However even with the dawn of modern medicine Tb Has Proved Immposible To eradicate With patients needing to take multiple combinations of antibiotics in order to cure it.This type of treatment has proved difficult to oversee in the developing world,Where it ravishes the poor and prisoners.Further more TB In HIV Positive Patients forms a deadly combination,which is resistant to most drugs.

1)HIV:

Many people who are HIV Positive are unaware that they are infected with the virus Which allows it to spread widely before anyone is aware of its existence.Thought to have been transmitted to humans from champanzees back in the 1800s it was only discoverd to be the AIDS Causing Virus in 1983.These HIV infection,left untreated ,leads to the failure of the immune system;which leaves the body volunerable to infection and cancer.Currently 36.7 million People live with the disease.The virus is spread through bodily fluids,including sexual transmission and blood which is a relatively difficult transmission method.However should the virus mutate to spread in simpler ways ,it could be catastrophic.

Our Question From Our Readers Is Could A Pandemic Wipe Out Humanity ?

Sources:

WHO

CDC

NHS

10 Accidental Medical Discoveries Of All Time

Accidental Medical DiscoveriesSome Medical discoveries happen when careful, goal-oriented laboratory work finally yields the result that a research worker is attempting to seek out.But often, some lucky accident ends up in a transformative finding, provided the proper person is there to comprehend the potential implications of that accident.Here are 10 Of Accidental Medical Discoveries.

 

10)Pancreatic diabetes:

Two surgeons at the end of 19 th century caution to a heated debate on this very question that ended with Dr.Oscar Minkowski grabbing hold of the dog and performing the first succeful pancreatectomy. the result the dog lived and more importantly Minkowski won the argument the dog then produce with a high volume of urine with the high sugar concentration.Minkowski;s genius was in realizing that the dog had been healthy,before the surgery,and pancreas must regulate sugar somehow.32 years later,insulin was isolated,and now used to treat 100 million sufferers of diabetes the world over but obviously this was one of the best accidental medical discoveries.

9)Viagra:

In 1989 Kent based research group for the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer were tasked with developing a drug to treat angina ,a condition of restricted blood flow to the heart. they created a promising pills .UK-92480 which was put through human clinical trials,but no effect on the heart,s blood vessels was seen. However people didt start returning with a rather noticeable side effects: a firm penile erection .Pfizer never one to miss the opportunity abandoned the original idea of angina medication and repackaged UK-92480 as viagra, thats why we place in the list of accidental medical discoveries. A drug that today makes the company an equally firm 1.7 billion every year.

8)Coronary Angiography:

When People are assessed for heart surgery,an X-ray is taken of their heart.However muscle doesn’t show up ,and so a dye must be injected.In the 1950s it was thought that the patient would die instantly if the dye was injected at the central point for maximum dispersion.So surgeons compromised by injecting the dye in the nearly aorta.F.Mason Sones was a Doctor at the Cleveland clinic and one day he was injecting some dye.But to his horror,his hand slipped and a huge amount of dye was injected into the wrong part of the heart.it stopped beating instantly.To Sones’ Surprise,However,the patient was still conscious.He ordered him to cough explosively ,which to Sones’Further disbelief restarted the Patient’s Heart.Sones Realized that a smaller Quantity of dye,one could safely perform the procedure in this more effective spot.This paved the way for the first coronary bypass surgery,which Sones Himself assisted.

7)Anesthetics:

In the 1700 Humphry Davy a young chemist decided to document the effect of nitrous oxide by taking it himself. He began by inhaling the “laughing gas” in the laboratory then with his friends and after drinking. the experiment became more frequent and higher with intensity but still he kept fastidious notes of his giddy pleasure.one day by chance davy had a two thing and he notice after inhaling nitrous oxide his pain subsided he made a brief note that it can be use in surgeries to help with the pain and after the publication of his paper the anesthetic discovery was seized upon and it is now on WHO list of essential medical list .

6)Pap Smear:

Dr.George Papanicolau, or Dr Pap to his friends liked to strut around cornell university experimenting on actual guinea pigs.By taking smear samples of their vaginal fluid,he found that under a microscope he could observe changes during their menstrual cycles.By 1920 Guinea pigs weren’t enough for him and he moved onto his wife mary to see how the menstrual cycle worked in humans.It was when he extended his trial to a group of women that he noticed something odd.One Women in the trial happened to have cervical cancer and when Dr.pap looked at her smear under the microscope Surprisingly he found that he could clearly see the cancerous cells.he had just discovered a new technique in cancer diagnosis.And since 1955 the Pap Smear has reduced the death from cervical cancer to a fifth of what they were.

5)Warfarin:

Earlier in the 20th century ,on the Northren plains Of America,healthy cattle began dying mysteriously of internal bleeding.It was during the great depression and farmers could not affords to throw out damp hay.And it was noted that the livestock had been grazing on sweet clover hay coverd in the mold.For some reasons ,this mold had been causing the cattle to thin and hemorrhage.After years of intensive medical work ,the active component was isolated from the mold,the blood thinner warfarin.Although it was used as a form of rat poison for a period,this anticoagulant is now used to treat blood clots and is currently used by 20 million Americans.

4) X-Ray Photography:

In 1895 Wilhelm Rontgen was investigating cathode ray tubes,These glass tubes produced beams of electrons and as part of an experiment,he wrapped one tube up in the black cardboard,which would block any electrons.However when he turned it on Phosphorescent screen across the room glowed,astounding him.Clearly something else was being emitted from the tube.Rontgen called the mysterious rays ‘X’ As a Placeholder,but ended up sticking.The first Photography he produced was an X-ray of his wife’s Hand with the wedding ring clearly visible.And the first medical X-ray was made just one month after Rontgen Published his findings.Today upto 3 billion tests involving X-rays Are performed every year worldwide.

3)Penicillin:

Alexander Flemming Famously discovered Penicillin in 1928,for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize.He had been studying the bacteria Staphylococcus and one Petri dish was left on a laboratory bench in the open.An open window allowed a spore of Penicillium to contaminate the dish and grow as a mold.After returning to the lab,Fleming noticed that the bacteria had not grown in the areas where the mold was .He induced that the Penicillium mold must have destroyed the bacteria,and in doing so he ended up discovering antibiotics by accident.antibiotic are now so prolific that an estimated 80 millions lives have been saved.

2)Implantable Pacemaker:

Working in 1956 inventor  and all –round British Gentlemen Wilson Greatbatch was working on a device to record the rhythm of heart beat.By accident he inserted the wrong circuit component,meaning that when he returned the device on, instead of recording a rhythm it emitted one.Greatbatch realized that because he could mimic the heartbeat,with such a small device it could be implanted as a pacemaker-something previously unachievable.He worked for the next two years streamlining the device,first succefully implanting it in a dog in 1958 and then a human in 1960.In 2009 The USA was found to have 225000 people with implanted pacemakers.

1)The Nerous System:

Bolognese anatomist Luigi Galvani liked devising experiments and especially dissecting frogs.After spending one day experimenting with an electrical machine,he moved on to dissect a pair of dismembered frog’s legs on a metal table.When he touch the frog legs with a charged metal scalped ,they jolted into life.Galvani observed that the leg muscles had contracted.Tapping the legs again,he induced that the nervous system must control muscles through electrical signals.Although it took some time to figure out the precise mechanism but this chance discovery underpinned all that modern anatomy went on to learn about the electrical control of muscles.

Pneumonia signs, causes, and Risk Factors


Pneumonia,signs,causes,risk factors
Every person can get pneumonia. it is generally a problem of a respiratory infection—mainly the flu—but there are more than 31-of-a-kind causes of the contamination. older adults, youngsters and those with continual disease, including copd and allergies, are at high hazard for pneumonia.

what are the signs and symptoms ?

 

Pneumonia symptoms can vary from moderate to severe, depending on the type of pneumonia you have, your age and fitness.

The maximum not unusual signs and symptoms  are:

(1)Cough (with a few pneumonias you can cough up greenish or yellow mucus, or even bloody mucus)

(2)Fever, which can be moderate or high

(3)Shaking chills

(4)Shortness of breath, which might also only occur when you climb stairs

Additional symptoms encompass:

 

(1)Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse whilst you breathe deeply or cough

(2)Headache

(3)Immoderate sweating and clammy pores and skin

(4)Lack of urge for food, low strength, and fatigue

(5)Confusion, specifically in older human beings

signs also can range, relying on whether or not your pneumonia is bacterial or viral.

In bacterial pneumonia, your temperature may upward thrust as high as 105 Degrees. this pneumonia can cause profuse sweating, and swiftly extended respiratory and pulse price. lips and nailbeds can also have a bluish shade due to loss of oxygen within the blood. a affected person’s intellectual state may be harassed or delirious.

The preview signs and symptoms of viral pneumonia are the related as influenza symptoms: fever,cough(dry), Headache, Muscle pain, and weakness. In 12 to 36 hours, there’s fledgling breathlessness; the cough will become worse and produces a small amount of mucus. there may be a high fever and there can be blueness of the lips.

Causes Of Pneumonia :

Many special germs can motive pneumonia. there are 5 fundamental causes of this disease:

(1)Micro organism

(2)Viruses

(3)Mycoplasmas

(4)Different infectious sellers, consisting of fungi

(5)Diverse chemical substances

if you have viral pneumonia, you are also liable to getting bacterial pneumonia.

know-how the cause of pneumonia is crucial because pneumonia treatment depends on its purpose. 

what are hazard factors?

All of us can get pneumonia, but some people are at a better hazard than others.

Risk factors (that growth your chances of getting this infection) encompass:

Cigarette smoking

Latest viral breathing contamination—a chilly, laryngitis, influenza, etc.

Issue swallowing (because of stroke, dementia, parkinson’s ailment, or different neurological conditions)

Continual lung disease such as copd, bronchiectasis, or cystic fibrosis

Cerebral palsy

Other critical illnesses, including heart disorder, liver cirrhosis, or diabetes

Dwelling in a nursing facility

Impaired consciousness (lack of brain feature due to dementia, stroke, or other neurologic situations)

Latest surgery or trauma

Having a weakened immune machine due to infection, sure medicinal drugs, and autoimmune disorders

Home Treatment:

Home  treatment is essential for restoration from pneumonia The subsequent measures will let you recover and keep away from headaches:

Get plenty of relaxation. drink lots of fluids to save you dehydration.

Deal with your cough if it is making it difficult in an effort to relaxation. a cough is one manner your frame gets rid of the contamination. and also you must no longer try to prevent your coughing until it is extreme enough to make respiration hard, motive vomiting, or save you relaxation.

Do not forget taking acetaminophen (which include tylenol) or aspirin to assist reduce fever and make you experience more relaxed. do not provide aspirin to every body more youthful than 20 due to the threat of reye syndrome. be secure with drug treatments. read and observe all instructions on the label.

Your health practitioner may also want to peer you after every week of remedy to make sure you have become better. be sure to touch your medical doctor in case you do no longer sense higher, your cough receives worse, you have got shortness of breath or a fever, you feel vulnerable, or you feel faint while you get up.

Chf medications Or Drugs Used For Congestive Heart Failure

chf medications

Chf medications or Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure/Heart Failure

To understand how chf medications work we have to first understand the normal physiology of heart.what happens to failing heart and what are the natural ways to avoid heart failure .We will also highlight some chf medications and possible management proctocols .

Cardiac/Heart Failure :

In Congestive Cardiac/Heart failure the heart fails to supply enough blood to the tissues due to decrease in cardiac out put.cardiac output depends upon the following four factors;
1)Preload
2)After load
3)Force Of heart contractility
4)Heart rate

Preload:

It can be defined as the volume of blood which flows into the heart and causes its stretch.stretching of the heart upto a certain point increases its force of contraction,as is explained by the frank starling law.thus increase in blood flow to the heart will increase its force of contraction upto a certain limit.beyond this point further increase in blood volume will lead to failure of the heart.a common example of this type of heart failure occurs in case of valvular incompetence.

Afterload:

It is the resistance offerd by the arterial system to the left ventricular contraction.increase in the arterial resistance causes the left ventricle to contract with more force.This out put load on the left ventricle and it is hypertrophied and thus ultimately fails.A common example of this occurs in chronic hypertension.here increase in arterial resistance causes decrease in systolic blood flow to kidney and other organs of the body.Decrease in renal blood flow leads to stimulation of renin secretion that causes formation of angiotensin 2.Angiotnesin 2 causes generalised vasoconstriction and increased release of aldosterone.Aldosterone causes retention of salt and water in the body by increasing their reabsoprtion from the distal renal tubules.this results in increase in the blood volume that further increase load on the heart.ultimately heart failure occurs.

Cardiac contractility:

Weaknes of the myocardium of the right and left ventricle will lead to decrease force of their contraction.coronary artery disease may lead to chronic right or left ventricle failure.acute myocardial infarction may lead to acute right or left ventricular failure.

Heart rate :

Any factor which decrease the force of contraction of the left ventricle will lead to decrease in cardiac output.This will cause relfex sympathetic nervous system stimulation,causing increase in the heart rate.

chf medications are used to control these four factors which ultimately decrease the chances of heart failure .

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CARDIAC FAILURE:

1)Tachycardia
2)Shortness of breath
3)Decrease in exercise tolerence
4)Pulmonary oedema
5)Cardiomegaly
6)Peripheral oedema

CLASSIFICATIOM OF DRUGS: chf medications 

Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure or chf medications are ,

1)Drugs used to decrease preload:
A)Diuretics
B)organic nitrate
2)Drugs which decrease after load
A)Hydralazine
B)Minoxidil
3)Drugs which decrease both preload and afterload:
A)Captopril
B)Enalapril
C)Lisinopril
D)Fosinopril
E)Quinapril
4)Positive ionotropic drugs:
They can be further divided into three groups;
1)Cardiac glycosides:
A)Digoxin
B)Digitoxin
C)Ouabin
D)Lanatoside.
2)Phosphodiestrase inhibitors:
A)inamrinonone (Amrinone)
B)Milrinone
3)Sympathomimetics:
A)Dopamine
B)Dobutamine
C)Depoxamine
D)Xamoterol

How to Manage Chronic Heart Failure:

Following steps should be taken for the managment of chronic heart failure:
1)Rest-Physical activity should be avoided
2)Hypertension and other underlying conditions should be treated.
3)Reduce weight if overweighted.
4)Reduce salt in diet.
5)Mild cardiac failure can be treated with diuretics for example frusemide in order to prevent K+ Loss amiloride or another K+ Sparing diuretic can be used with frusemide or other loop diuretics.
6)If cardiac failure is not controlled with diuretics then angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can be used,provided there is no hyptension.if hypotension is present then organic nitrates cannbe used.
7)Digoxin or other cardiac glycoside can be used if heart failure is not adequately controlled by the above methods.

How to manage Acute Ventricular Failure:

1)Patient should be put to complete bed rest.in severe left ventricular failure,legs should be kept dependent (Hanging from the bed)to reduce venous return from the legs.
2)A loop diuretic ,such as frusemide,should be given intravenously to produce dilatationof viens and later on diuresis.40-80 mg of frusemide can be given.Morphine can also be given intravenously to produce vasodilation as well as to reduce anxiety of the patient.

Aspirin Not Less Than A Miracle

Facts about aspirinLike most of us, when you encounter a regular  throbbing painfulness, Aspirin is presumably the principal thing you go after. However, while Aspirin has been a standout amongst the most mainstream pharmaceutical agents of the previous one hundred years, it is really a Synthetic Derivative Of the naural substance salicylic Acid—the related Healing properties of which have been known for centuries.

Continue reading “Aspirin Not Less Than A Miracle”

Diuretics Classification With Furosemide Pharmacology

Diuretics Classification With Furosemide PharmacologyDiuretics Classification With Furosemide Pharmacology
Diuretics:

Diuretics are Substances or drugs that are used to enhance or to modulate or to potentiate diuresis.OR Any agents or drugs that increase the volume of urine and any agents that increase the excretion of sodium (Na+) in the urine is called natriuretic or diuretics.

Classification:

(1)Thiazides diuretics
chlorothiazide
chlorthalidone
indapamide
hydrochlorothiazide
methyclothiazide
metolazone
(2)Loop diuretics
bumetanide
furosemide
ethacrynate
torsemide
(3)Potassium sparing diuretics
Amiloride hydrochloride
spironolactone
triamterene
(4)Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors:
Acetazolamide
Methazolamide.

Furosemide:
Also known as frusemide.
Therapeutic Category:
It is one of the loop diuretic
One of the antihypertensive
Drug of choice in pulmonary oedema
Drug of choice in generalized oedema
(Oedema related to myocardial infarction and Oedema related to liver cirrhosis.
DOSAGE FORM & STRENGTHS:
It is available in solution,tablets as well as injectable form
Solution: 8,10 mg/ml
Tablet:20 mg,40mg,80mg
Injections:10 mg/ml,2ml.
Comercial Product and Trade names:
Frusemix 40mg (Abbot)
Losix 20,40 mg (Aventus)

Pharmacokinetics:

After oral adminstration absorption is satisfying,more the  40-60% of drug have absorption capability.
Onset of action:
In case of solid dosage form its onset of action is 30-60 minutes.
Peak effect is 1-2 hours
Time half: (T1/2)
Almost 1 hour
Protien Binding
More the 80% of drug have protien binding ability.

Mechanism of action:

As for mechanism of action is concern it is restricted to loop of henle and distilled part. it block Na-K+2cl- Cotransporter .Overall the drug is responsible to reinhibit the absorption of Na+,Cl-,Mg+ while on other side responsible for extretion of H+and K+ ions by tubular secretionso overall effect is reabsorption of various ions net result will decrease plasma volume inother words we can say it decrease peripheral resistance,venous return to heart,decrease diastolic blood pressure,so obviously there will be decrease heart rate ,cardiac output,and decrease systolic blood pressure.so loop diuretic have ability to decrease diastolic blood pressure by direct pathway while systolic blood pressure by indirect pathway.

Indications:
1)Acute pulmonary Oedema:

It  is most commonly related to lung directly related to deoxygenated blood ,specialy in condition like if a person is suffering from congestion of lungs so on one side it increase quantity of deoxygenated blood towards lungs while on other side due to congestion leads to increase permeability at the level of endothelial cell so liquid portion will ooze out towards interstatial area which is responsible for pulmonary oedema.
By taking support of loop diuretic peripheral resistance and venous return will decrease.this lead to decrease work load on heart obviously the contractility of heart will be decrease which in turn will decrease transportation toward lungs.

2)Generalized Oedema.

Loop diuretic specially frusemide use in generalized type of oedema relating to some pathological conditions like CHF,tachycardia,and liver cirhosis.

3)Hyperkalemia.

Loop diuretic is used in hyperkalemia because it block Na-K+2cl- Cotransporter and block K+(Potasium) to go to the blood so potasium level in blood decreases.
4)Hypertension:
Loop diuretic is used in hypertension in aged candidates while taking support of strips managment protocol for hypertension.also used to decrease Na+ intake ,Decrease alcohol consumtion specially in pregnancy.Also used in hypermagnesemia and hypernatrimia.

Adverse effects:(ADR)

Hypokalemia
Hyperurecemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
Hyponatremia
Systemic alkalosis
Orthostatic hypotension
Osteoporosis if use for long time.

Precautionary measurment:

1)Monitor for possible occurence of blood dyscrasia and liver damage,monitor urine and blood pressure in diabetes.
2)Frequently monitor serum electrolyte
3)Incase of lactating mother it cross and exrete in milk so can effect the child.
4)In case of childrens may increase incidence of patent ductus arteriosis in premature infant especially with respiratory distress.
5)Persons Showing hypersensitivity reactions towards sulphonamide can show allergic reaction to frusemide.
6)Renal function:If increasing azotemia and oliguria occurs during treatment abruptly discontinue the drug.

Drug interactions:

1)Interaction of other antihypertensive drugs with frusemide increase the effects of frusemide.If use with other antihypertensive agents then reduce the dose by atleast 50%.
2)Frusemide Increase plasma lithium level and cause toxicity.
3)NSAIDs Decrease tge effects of frusemide
4)Phenytoin may reduce diuretic effect of frusemide.
4)Interaction of frusemide with thiazide diuretic can show synergistic effect that may result in profound diuresis and serious electrolyte abnormalities.

Best For Prostate cancer: Laparoscopic Or robotic surgery?

Best For Prostate cancer: Laparoscopic Or robotic surgery?when someone is diagnosed with Prostate Cancer , amongst the selection-listing of treatment alternatives, the alternatives narrows down to two ;

1)Laparoscopic surgical procedure

2)Robotic surgical procedure.

The health practitioner who manages sufferers with prostate cancer must recognize the factors facilitating the nice outcomes and help the sufferers to choose the higher treatment at curing this cancer.

Laparoscopic surgical treatment :

The laparoscopic surgery incorporates of a special camera or scope used to look inside the abdomen. surgical procedures executed with this form of tools are called keyhole, porthole or minimally invasive surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgical operation eliminates the need for larger incisions as in conventional surgery. This ends in much less ache and scarring put up surgery, much less contamination and faster healing. Laparoscopic surgical treatment for prostate most cancers may appearance promising. sufferers present process this method have less blood loss, shorter medical institution live, quicker go back to ordinary activities and early removal of the urethral catheter.

Robot surgical treatment:

The method has the same benefits related to laparoscopic prostate surgical treatment like no incisions, minimal blood loss, faster recuperation and early elimination of the catheter with an add-on of a robot tool with cameras for better visualization. these two cameras permit the health care professional to check the 3-dimensional view with the highest magnification. The robot instrumentation gives the general practitioner with a full variety of motion. drastically the blood loss is much less for the duration of the remedy with robotic surgical operation and hence is likewise known as the cold prostate cancer remedy.

Comparision:

Blessings of robotic Prostate surgical treatment over Laparoscopic Prostate surgical treatment both the prostate most cancers treatment options aim on the identical target of accomplishing minimally invasive surgical treatment. however, there are few key points which make robot surgical operation more superior over the laparoscopic surgical treatment. The benefits of robot prostate most cancers surgical operation over conventional laparoscopic surgical procedure are- Clinically advanced consequences: The touchy electronics and one-centimeter diameter surgical arms of the robot device, lets in the doctor to make a pretty unique motion in the incision at some point of the surgery. This precision avoids damaging wholesome prostate tissue improving clinical results. decreased chance of headaches: widespread non-robotic prostate surgical operation requires large incisions which growth the patient’s susceptibility to bacterial contamination earlier than and after the surgical operation. The robotic surgical operation requires five incisions of much less than two inches each which takes much less time for healing and much less prone to bacterial contamination. faster healing period: all through robotic surgery, the smaller incisions required to move the running arms heal the incision a lot quicker, require fewer sutures, and are less liable to tearing or infections. these kinds of elements make contributions in a faster recuperation length. minimum Scarring: The robot prostate surgery leaves the incision which heals with very little visible scarring. via minimizing the size of the incision had to put off cancerous tissue, the threat of scar tissue-related complications is greatly mitigated. end Prostate cancer surgery is getting more in demand due to its effective results. The surgeons are tremendously qualified and have awesome credentials within the area of prostate cancer surgical operation, makes the system smooth like butter with the use of new device and era. This surgery is also acknowledged for its budget-friendly facility. cash performs a critical position in present process any sort of surgical treatment. hence prostate most cancers surgery fee gives the patient an opportunity to store a honest quantity of margin on the general expenditure. surgery cost is clearly low and cheap and consequently can show to be a lifestyles-saving element in one’s lifestyles.

Most Commonly Used Drugs And Their Mechanisms

Most commonly used drugsMost Commonly Used Drugs And Their Mechanism Of Action:
Obviously This Is Not The Full List Of Medications. I am Going To Compile A List Of Most commonly used Drugs Which Every Pharmacist,Physician,Nurse And Other Medical Students Should Know .Following Are The List Of Some Of Most Commonly Used Important Drugs Classes With Mechanism.

(1) Beta Lactam Antibiotics:

Mostl Commonly Used Drugs In This Class Are Penicillin and Cephalosporins
This Is Not A Single Drug But A group Of Different Other Agents Which Includes :
Penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, penicillin V and many more
These Antibiotics Are Also Called “Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors”
Mostly Used Drugs Include :
1) Penicillin,
2) Cephalosporin,

MECHANISM OF PENICILLIN:

Penicillin inhibits transpeptidase and preventing the remodeling of the peptidoglycan layer. These Transpeptidase Enzyme Is Responsible For The Linking Of Sub Units Of Amino Acid Which Is Responsible For The Cell Wall Synthesis.

2) Cephalosporin drugs are divided into different generations depending upon their microbial spectrum.
1.First generation:
Some Commonly Used drugs In This Class Are:
Cefadroxil
Cephalexin
Cefalotin
Cefazolin
Cefradine
Ceftezole

2.Second generation:
Following Are The Most Commonly Used Medications In This Group;
Cefaclor
Cefonicid
Cefprozil
Cefuroxime
Cefuzonam.

3.Third generation
Cefixime
Cefpodoxime
Cefatoxime
Cefdinir
Cefoperazone
ceftazidime
4.Fourth generation:
cefepime
5.Fifth generation:
Ceftaroline

 

Mechanism Of Action Of Cephalosporin:

Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have an indistinguishable method of activity from other β-lactam anti-infection agents, (for example, penicillins), yet are less helpless to β-lactamases. Cephalosporins disturb the union of the peptidoglycan layer shaping the bacterial cell divider. The peptidoglycan layer is vital for cell divider auxiliary respectability. The last transpeptidation venture in the combination of the peptidoglycan is encouraged by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). PBPs tie to the D-Ala-D-Ala toward the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors ) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam antibiotics mimic the D-Ala-D-Ala site, along these lines irreversibly restraining PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.

(ii) Flouroquinolones Antibiotics:
Mechanism of Action
Quinolones quickly restrain DNA union by advancing cleavage of bacterial DNA in the DNA-enzyme complexes of DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase, bringing about fast bacterial death.1–3 when in doubt, gram-negative bacterial action associates with hindrance of DNA gyrase, and gram-positive bacterial action compares with inhibition of DNA type IV topoisomerase 1
The Parent Compound Of This Class Of Antibiotics Is Nalidixic Acid.
Important And Most Commonly Drugs In This Class Are;
3)Norfloxacin
4)Ofloxacin
5)Ciprofloxacin
6)Levofloxacin
7)Gatifloxacin
8)Moxifloxacin
9)Trovafloxacin
(iii)High Blood Pressure (AntiHypertensive Drugs )
Angiotensin 2 Receptors Blockers:
Mechanism:
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) relax your veins, which brings down your pulse and makes it simpler for your heart to pump blood
Angiotensin is a compound in your body that influences your cardiovascular framework in different ways, including narrowing your veins. This narrowing can expand your circulatory strain and compel your heart to work harder. Angiotensin II receptor blockers hinder the activity of angiotensin II, permitting veins to extend
Mostly Used Drugs In This Class Includes;
10)Valsartan
11)Losartan
Calcium Channel Blockers:
Mechanism Of Action:
Inhibition of the flood of calcium through moderate directs in the vascular smooth muscles and myocardial tissue amid depolarization. This outcomes in systemic and coronary vein vasodilation, diminished myocardial contractility, and sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodal depression.
Most Commonly Used
12)Amlodipine

Beta blocker :
Beta blockers, otherwise called beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are medications that decrease your BP. Beta blockers work by obstructing the impacts of the hormone epinephrine, also known as called adrenaline. When you take beta blockers, your heart thumps all the more gradually and with less constrain, in this way lessening circulatory strain. Beta blockers likewise veins open up to enhance blood stream.
Mostly Used Drugs;
13)Carvedolol
14)Metoprolol
15)Atenolol

Alpha receptor agonist:
16)Clonidine
Mechanism Of Clonidine:
It stimulates the alpha 2 receptor of the vasomotor center of the brain,leading to decrease in the activity of sympathetic nerves to the peripheral tissues.inhibitiob of the sympathetic nerves to the blood vessels will cause vasodilation.both these effects will cause fall in blood bloodpressure.

3)Anticholestrol (Statins)
Mechanism Of Action:
Statins hinder an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase, which controls cholesterol creation in the liver.
The medication obstructs the dynamic site of the compound, keeping different particles from actuating it, along these lines backing off the cholesterol generation handle.
Extra compounds in the liver cell sense that cholesterol generation has diminished and react by making a protein that prompts to an expansion in the creation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein, or “bad” cholesterol) receptors.
These receptors migrate to the liver cell films and tie to passing LDL and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein)). The LDL and VLDL then enter the liver and are processed.
Individuals regularly start statin treatment to bring down their cholesterol level to beneath 5 millimoles per liter, or by 25-30 percent. The dose might be expanded if this objective is not came to. Treatment with statins more often than not proceeds even after the objective cholesterol level is come to proceed with the insurance against atherosclerosis.
Most Commonly Used Drugs
17)Atorvastatins
18)Lovastatin
19)Simastatin

4)Proton Pump Inhibitors
Mechanism:
The PPI ties irreversibly to a hydrogen/potassium ATPase catalyst (proton pump) on gastric parietal cells and obstructs the discharge of hydrogen particles, which consolidate with chloride particles in the stomach lumen to shape gastric acid.
Most Commonly Used Drugs:
20) Omeprazole
21)Esomeprazole
22)Lansoprazole
5)Antiseizure: (Anticonvulsion)
Mechanism Of Action:
23)Gabapentin
24)Pregabalin
Mechanism Of Gabapentin:
The exact Mechanism by which gabapentin delivers its pain relieving and antiepileptic activities are obscure(Unknown). Gabapentin is basically identified with the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric corrosive (GABA) however has no impact on GABA official, take-up, or debasement. In vitro thinks about have demonstrated that gabapentin ties with high-fondness to the a2d subunit of voltage-enacted calcium channels; be that as it may, the relationship of this authoritative to the helpful impacts of gabapentin is obscure or unknown.
6)Antidiabetic drugs:
25)Metformin
26)Glyburide
27)Glibenclamide
28)Politazone
29)Insulin
Mechanism Of action: Sulphonylureas are settling on particular receptors and acts through the potassium channel from the pancreatic and the additional pancreatic level. At pancreatic level, increment insulin emission and at the level of pancreatic beta cells, they increment the quantity of insulin receptors. At additional pancreatic sulphonylurea drugs diminish hepatic gluconeogenesis (glucose union from non-sugar sources), expanded glycolysis and improves insulin activity in skeletal muscle and in fat tissue.
30) Aspirin:
Mechanism Of Action:
The pain relieving, antipyretic, and calming impacts of acetylsalicylic corrosive are because of activities by both the acetyl and the salicylate parts of the in place atom and additionally by the dynamic salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic corrosive specifically and irreversibly represses the action of both sorts of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to diminish the development of antecedents of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic corrosive. This makes acetylsalicylic corrosive unique in relation to different NSAIDS, (for example, diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may intensely repress prostaglandin development. Acetylsalicylic corrosive’s antirheumatic (nonsteroidal calming) activities are an aftereffect of its pain relieving and mitigating instruments; the helpful impacts are not because of pituitary-adrenal incitement. The platelet conglomeration hindering impact of acetylsalicylic Acid particularly includes the compound’s capacity to go about as an acetyl benefactor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically huge impact on platelet total. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase idle, in this way keeping the arrangement of the totaling operator thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets do not have the capacity to combine new proteins, the impacts persevere for the life of the uncovered platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic corrosive may likewise hinder creation of the platelet conglomeration inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by vein endothelial cells; in any case, restraint prostacyclin generation is not perpetual as endothelial cells can deliver more cyclooxygenase to supplant the non-practical catalyst.
Pain Medications:
31) Tramadol:
Mechanism:
Tramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite (M1) are specific, weak OP3-receptor agonists. opiate receptors are combined with G-protein receptors and capacity as both positive and negative controllers of synaptic transmission by means of G-proteins that initiate effector proteins. As the effector framework is adenylate cyclase and cAMP situated at the internal surface of the plasma film, opioids diminish intracellular cAMP by hindering adenylate cyclase. Along these lines, the arrival of nociceptive neurotransmitters, for example, substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is restrained. The pain relieving properties of Tramadol can be ascribed to norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake barricade in the CNS, which represses torment transmission in the spinal string. The (+) enantiomer has higher fondness for the OP3 receptor and specially represses serotonin take-up and upgrades serotonin discharge. The (- ) enantiomer specially hinders norepinephrine reuptake by fortifying alpha(2)- adrenergic receptors.

32)Acetaminophen:

Acetaminophen is thought to act essentially in the CNS, expanding the pain threshold by restraining both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 compounds required in prostaglandin (PG) amalgamation. Not at all like NSAIDs, acetaminophen does not restrain cyclooxygenase in fringe tissues and, hence, has no fringe calming influences. While headache medicine goes about as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and specifically hinders the chemical’s dynamic site, ponders have found that acetaminophen in a roundabout way pieces COX, and that this bar is insufficient within the sight of peroxides. This may clarify why acetaminophen is compelling in the focal sensory system and in endothelial cells however not in platelets and invulnerable cells which have abnormal amounts of peroxides. Ponders likewise report information proposing that acetaminophen specifically hinders a variation of the COX protein that is not the same as the known variations COX-1 and COX-2. This compound is currently alluded to as COX-3. Its correct system of activity is still ineffectively seen, yet future research may give assist knowledge into how it functions. The antipyretic properties of acetaminophen are likely because of direct impacts on the warmth controlling focuses of the hypothalamus bringing about fringe vasodilation, sweating and henceforth warm dispersal.